JTF Training Crisis Action Planning Course of Action Development UNCLASSIFIED
Restated Mission Statement O/O, CCDR CJTF will conduct Foreign Disaster Humanitarian Assistance in support of the Government of Cameroon to relieve the suffering associated with Volcano OKU.
Commander’s Intent CCDR USAFRICOM CJTF will establish and deploy forces to forward operating bases to alleviate suffering in devastated areas. In coordination with the appropriate consular or AMEMBASSY personnel, US forces will provide mobility and logistics support capabilities to enhance HN efforts in response to the crisis. US forces will limit operations to essential life sustaining operations and where feasible will hand off FHA/DR function to other agencies as soon as practical. Close coordination with other USG agencies, NGO, and IGO will facilitate operations and eliminate duplication of efforts. When directed US forces redeploy to home station and reconstitute for future contingencies. ENDSTATE. Success is defined as a minimized loss of life and human suffering of displaced persons, the scope of the crisis no longer exceeds the capacity of the host nations, and all US personnel are redeployed to home station.
COA Development Overview • Analyze information associated with a current situation • Components, techniques and procedures for conducting an operational-level mission analysis for a Joint Task Force (JTF) • Suggested input into planning process • Logistical shortfalls in planning process • Adequate, feasible and acceptable COAs • COA steps • Center of gravity, task priorities, and phasing sketch
MULTINATIONAL FORCE STANDING OPERATING PROCEDURES (MNF SOP) Version 1.6 February 2006 Reference JP 3-0 Doctrine for Joint Operations JP 4-0 Logistics JP 5-0 Joint Operation Planning JP 5-00.2 JTF Planning Guidance & Procedures CJCS 3500.05A JTF HQ Master Training Guide MNF SOP
Develop a Military Course of Action Key Points Crisis Action Planning (CAP) Procedures: • Three process • Key Documents • Warning & Alert Orders • Commander’s Estimate • Requires Concurrent & Collaborative Planning
CAP Functions I Situational Awareness II Planning III Execution
CAP Process Features • Rapid Exchange of Information • Analysis of situations affecting possible Courses of Action (COAs) • Developing valid COAs • Comparison COA • Recommended/Selecting the best COAs • Coordinating plans & order supporting execution
Function II – Planning I Situational Awareness II Planning III Execution • JTF Tasks: • Mission Analysis • Issue Planning Guidance • Issue Warning Order • Develop COAs • Develop Staff Estimates • Analyze COAs • Compare COAs • Recommend COA • Submit CDR’s Estimate National Authorities Warning Order CDR’s Estimate Supported CCDR CCDR’s Warning Order CDR’s Estimate JFC JTF PLANNING
Course of Action (COA) Development • The COA consist of the following information: • WHO will take the action • WHAT type of military action will occur • WHEN the action will begin • WHERE the action will occur • WHY the action is required (purpose) • HOW the action will occur (method of employment of forces) Joint Pub 5-0
COA Development • To develop COAs, the staff must focus on key information to make decisions, using the data from mission analysis. • The Staff develops COAs to provide options to the commander. • Focus on Centers of Gravity and Decisive Points • All COAs selected must be valid
Develop Initial COAs Center of Gravity (COG) “The hub of all power and movement, on which everything depends. That is the point against which all of our energies should be directed.” Carl von Clausewitz Military Infrastructure Economic Social Political Information
Initial Test for Validity Course of Action Characteristics • Test for adequacy • Test for feasibility • Test for acceptability • Ensure COAs are distinguishable • Test for completeness
Adequate • Does it accomplish the mission? • Does it meet the Combatant Commander’s and CJTF’s intent? • Does it accomplish all the essential tasks? • Does it allow the CJTF to meet the conditions for the end state? • Does it take into consideration the enemy and friendly centers of gravity?
Feasible • Can accomplish the mission within the established time, space, and resource limitations? • Will those resources be available in the JOA in time? • Forces/Capability • Transportation • Resupply • Facilities - Can the COA be carried out within the physical environment’s constraints?
Acceptable • Must balance cost and risk with the advantage gained. • Does it contain unacceptable risks? • Does it take into account the limitations placed on the CTF? • Does it contribute to the higher commander’s strategic objectives? • Can it be accomplished within external constraints, particularly ROE?
Fall of Gov. C2 No HNS LOG C2 Distro Probls Early EOM Risk Matrix HIGH Impact LOW HIGH Likelihood
Distinguishable • Are the COAs sufficiently different from each other • COAs can be different when considering... • Focus or direction of main effort • Scheme of maneuver (land, air, maritime, special ops) • Primary mechanism for mission accomplishment • Task Organization • Use of reserves
COA Development What to Avoid Nested COAs COA 1 COA 2 COA 3 COA 2 includes all of COA 1 COA 3 includes all of COAs 1 & 2
COA Planning Enablers • Planning considerations in developing different COAs -Joint Force Capabilities (operational fires and maneuver, deception) -Joint Force Organizations -Combinations of elements of operational design (phasing line of operations and so forth) -Commander and staff risk assessment -Intelligence updates Joint Pub 5-0
Complete • Are the COAs technically complete? Must incorporate: • Objectives, effects and tasks to be performed • Major forces required • Concepts for development, employment and sustainment • Time estimates for achieving objectives • Military end state and success criteria
COA Planning Enablers Key Inputs • Joint Force Commander’s (JFC) Planning Guidance • JFC Initial Intent • Initial Staff Estimates • Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment Key Outputs • Revised Staff Estimates • COA Alternatives including -Tentative task organization -Deployment concept -Sustainment concept COA Development
Prepare COA • Develop COA sketch(s) • Deployment/Sustainment Concept • Operational design • Phasing • Line of operations
COA 1 ALOC HOME BASE US C2 HUB Country 1 ALOC COA 1 Sail direct to Country 2 Deploy land forces to Country 1 -- to control flow of troops into Country 2 Unrep Country 2 APOD SPOD
COA 2 COA 2 Sail and deploy land forces direct to Country 1 HOME BASE ALOC Unrep Country 1 APOD SPOD
X Example Sketch PHASE THREE: Decisive Action MARFOR: O/O conduct offensive operations to secure northern approaches to City T ARFOR: Deploy ACR to forward AA. O/O conduct offensive operations to clear central and southern approaches. Air Aslt/Abn Bde est. opnl reserve and rear area defense. AFFOR: Maintain air superiority. Conduct AI and strat atk operations. NAVFOR: No change JSOTF: No change XX City T City G C+31 to C+60 This phase completes the introduction of combat forces (Phase II) and begins offensive operations to evict all aggressors from the sovereign territory of Blueland. Operations will be conducted along two axes. Phase is complete upon restoration of territorial integrity of Blueland.
DEPLOYMENT SHAPING DECISIVE OPS TRANSITION Halt, Protect & Defend Eject & Eliminate Protect/Defend Guppie/Nessie/SLOCs Eliminate Piranha Ability to Proj Pwr Turn over to HN Forces Freedom of Navigation MARITIME Superiority Initiate IO Campaign AIR Superiority Establish FOB HA - Saipan/Tin HA Turnover EPW MGMT Seize Saipan IDP MGMT Seize Tinian Redeploy BPT NEO BPT MIO BPT CM HA Coord CFLCC X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X CFMCC X X X X X X X X X X X X CFACC X X X X X X X X X X X X CSOTF X X X X X X X CPOTF X X CMOTF X X X X X X CCTF X X X X X - Phase Main Effort/Task Supported Commander - Task Supported Commander - Task Supporting Commander Example Phasing/Task Distribution
SUSTAIN (Example) Log Effects Matrix PHASE 1 Pre-Deployment PHASE 2 Deploy/ RSOI/ Coalition Force Integration PHASE 3 Move PHASE 4 Prevention & Stabilisation PHASE 5 Offensive Ops/ Assistance/ Stabilisation/ Deterrence PHASE 6 Handover RECOVER LOG build-up LOG INTEGRATION RSOI SUPPORT LOG C2 OF UN/IO/NGO AGENCIES
COA Wargaming • The Commander and Staff will Analyze each tentative COA separately and identify advantages and disadvantages of each Proposed COA. • The analysis of COAs should reveal the following factors: • Potential decision points • Task organization adjustments • Data for use in a synchronization matrix or other decision making tools • Identification of plan branches and sequels • Identification of high-value targets • A risk assessment. • COA advantages and disadvantages • Recommended CCIR’s
COA Wargaming Steps • 2. Conduct Wargaming and assess • -Purpose of wargaming (identify gaps) • -Basic methodology • -Records results • 3. Output of wargaming: • -Results of wargame brief • Potential decision points • Governing factors • Potential branches and sequels • Revised staff estimates • Refined COAs • Feedback through the COA decision brief 1. Prepare for Wargaming -Gather tools -List and review Friendly forces -List and review enemy forces -List known critical events -Determine participates -Determine enemy COA -Select wargaming method -Select a method to record & display results (Syn Matrix)
COA (MARITIME) HOME BASE US Country 2 Refuel Operations Refueling Operations COA reflects refueling shortfall in support of timeline and distance Country 1 APOD SPOD USNS COMFORT
COA Comparison Key Outputs Key Inputs • Evaluated COAs • Recommended COA • COA Selection Rational • Revised Staff Estimates • Advantages & Disadvantages • Wargaming Results • Governing Factors • Revised staff estimates COA Comparison
COA Comparison Example
COA Approval • The staff determines the best COA to the commander. • The staff briefs the commanders on the COA comparison (approval inputs and outputs) • The staff briefs the comparison and analysis and wargaming results. • The commander selects a COA or forms an alternate COA. -Direct revisions to COAs - Combinations of COAs - Additional COAs
Products JTF Plan • Basic Plan/OPORD - Paragraph 4, Administration and Logistics • Annex D - Logistics • Annex L – Environmental Considerations • Annex P – Host-Nation Support • Annex Q – Medical Services • Others as appropriate (Contracting, etc.)