Unit 4 Notes: War of 1812-Jacksonian Democracy Chevalier Fall 2011
War of 1812 • Causes: • Free seas and trade • British practice of impressment • Frontier pressures • Shawnee twin brothers Tecumseh and prophet • Unite tribes west of the Mississippi • British financial and military assistance • Declaration of War (June 1812)
“War Hawks” – Wanted War with Britain John C. Calhoun [SC] Henry Clay [KY]
Opposition to the War • “Mr. Madison’s War” • New England merchants • Making money after repeal of Embargo Act • Federalist politicians • Matter of principle; increasing Republican voting strength • Old Republicans • Violated the classical Republican principle of limited federal power and maintenance of peace
MR. MADISON'S WAR War of 1812 • PRINCIPLES WE FOUGHT • Defend our neutrality • Freedom of the seas • Defend our self interest • Madison brought the US into this war to defend the neutrality of the US. • Would this be a violation of President Washington’s policy of keeping the US out of war and neutral? President James Madison
Map war1812 WAR OF 1812 • US unprepared for war. • Failed invasion into Canada. • Blockade hurt US economy…
The Battle of Thames River, Oct. 5, 1813 • US military victory led by General William H. Harrison • Tecumseh was killed during this battle
The Battle of Lake Erie was probably the most important naval battle of the war After defeating the British, Captain Oliver Hazard Perry declared, “We have met the enemy and they are ours” Thomas Macdonough defeated a British fleet on Lake Champlain which resulted in a British retreat US Naval tradition develops during the War of 1812 – USS Constitution or “Old Ironsides” Naval Battles
Chesapeake Campaign • Spring 1814-Napoleon defeated • Washington burned • Baltimore and Fort McHenry
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WAR OF 1812 Dolly Madison escaped from White House and took many pieces of art, furniture from the White House before the British destroyed it. Washington, D.C. burned by British, 25th of August 1814
highlights HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WAR OF 1812 U.S. Flag which flew over Fort McHenry to inspire Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. September 13th, 1814
Battle of Fort McHenry,1814 Oh Say Can You SeeBy the Dawn’s Early Light… -- Francis Scott Key
BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS • 10,000 British troops reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and were threatening the Louisiana Purchase. • 4,500 U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson, the British were defeated on January 8, 1815, 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war.
BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS • Considered greatest U.S. victory to that time • Defeated British’s best without help from any country • Countries gained respect for the U.S. after this battle. • Kept Louisiana Purchase under the control of the U.S.
The Treaty of Ghent • War of 1812 is considered a “stalemate”…Dec. 1814 • Csar Nicolas I of Russia calls for the treaty • John Q. Adams sent to negotiate • Peace commissioners in Ghent (Belgium) devised the following terms of peace • A halt to the fighting • The return of all conquered territory to the prewar borders • Recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States • Treaty was ratified by the Senate • Treaty was ratified two weeks before the battle of New Orleans • War of 1812 ends in a draw – not much changed • American Slogan in 1812, “On to Canada” • American Slogan in 1814, “Not One Inch of Territory Ceded or Lost”
H A R T F O R D C O N V E N T I O N • Radical NE Federalists met to discuss their grievances & find solutions to their problems: • U.S. Govt. fighting an unnecessary war against the wrong enemy • Sought financial assistance from Washington since their trade was at a standstill because British had placed a blockade around the Atlantic coastline of US • New Englanders continued to trade with the British during the war • Talked of secession or a separate peace proposal with England
H A R T F O R D C O N V E N T I O N • Resolutions adopted by the convention resemble a modern day political platform: • Constitutional amendments lessening the powers of Congress • restoring Federalist influence by a minority veto • 2/3’s vote before an embargo, new western states could be admitted and war could be declared.
U.S. gained the respect of other nations U.S. came to accept Canada as a neighbor and a part of the British Empire The Federalist party came to an end as a national force Talk of nullification and secession in New England set a precedent that would later be used by the South Gained our neutrality and became isolated from Europe The War’s Legacy
Native Americans in the West were forced to surrender large areas of land and move west. More U.S. factories were built War heroes such as Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison would eventually become Presidents. Growth of American nationalism Enter a time period in our history called the “Era of Good Feelings” The War’s Legacy
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1817 TO 1825 american system • Spirit of Nationalism in US • patriotism or national oneness • Country is united, confident, and growing • 1791-1819, 9 states joined the original 13. • One political party---Republican party • Respect from Europe • Monroe first president to visit all states. • Boston newspaper declared an “Era of Good Feelings” had began. • But, time period was not free of problems.
Cultural Nationalism Patriotic themes infused every aspect of American society from books and paintings of Revolutionary heroes to Noah Webster’s blue-backed speller that promoted patriotism Economic Nationalism Running parallel with cultural nationalism was a political movement to support the growth of the nation’s economy--------AMERICAN SYSTEM Political Nationalism Movement to bring about the support for national government over the states. Supreme court decisions support the concept of national government over the states. ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS
Chief Justice John Marshall • Marbury v. Madison (1803) • Judicial Review is established; federal law determined unconstitutional • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) • Implied power to create the bank • The power to create implies the power to preserve • Power to tax is the power to destroy • Cohens v. Virginia (1821) • Even though Maryland wins the case, it is a loss for all states, allowing the SC to review a state’s SC ruling involving any of the powers of the federal government • Gibbons v. Ogden (1821) • Control of interstate commerce would go to the federal government • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) • Sanctity of contracts (NH wanted to change the charter of the school to a public institution • Fletcher v. Peck (1810) • State laws could be invalidated • GA passed a law invalidating a contract (supremacy Clause)
AMERICAN SYSTEM Henry Clay’s American System american system • Congress’s attempt to unite the US • National transportation system of roads, canals, steamships and rivers. • Protective Tariff to promote infant industry • Tariff of 1816 (first of its kind) • 2nd Bank of US to promote a stronger economy • Re-chartered in 1816
National Transportation system Cumberland Road and Erie Canal first internal improvements to unite the US the first steamboat on western waters was in 1811. 1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation 1850 to 1860 the railroad is added The Land Act of 1820 gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash; the West demanded transportation. ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817-18) Treaty with Great Britain Shared Oregon Territory for 10 years Shared fishing rights off Newfoundland the setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel US agreed to cede land above 49th parallel GB agreed to cede land below 49th parallel Westward Expansion
Florida Becomes Part of US After War of 1812, Spain had difficulty governing Florida Seminole Indians, runaway slaves, and white outlaws conducted raids into U.S. territory and retreated to safety across the Florida border Westward Expansion • President Monroe commissioned General Andrew Jackson to stop the raiders • Jackson led a force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged 2 Seminole chiefs • Jackson captured Pensacola and drove out the Spanish governor
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) AKA the Florida Purchase Treaty Spain turned over western Florida along with all to the east Claims in the Oregon Territory to the U.S. US agreed to pay $5 million to Spain to give up any territorial claims to Texas Westward Expansion
49th Parallel Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1818 with Great Britain Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 with Spain Texas
In 1819, Missouri, first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood Threatened balance of power in Congress 11 free states 11 slave states The Tallmadge amendment prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri All slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25. Passed by the House, not in the Senate (south hate) The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate. MISSOURI COMPROMISE
Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state Maine was to be admitted as a free state In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 3630', slavery was prohibited MISSOURI COMPROMISE After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise
monroe doctrine MONROE DOCTRINE • In foreign affairs Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine. • Monroe was responding to the threat that Europe might try to aid Spain in winning back her former Latin American colonies. • Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wanted to protect new “republics” in the Western Hemisphere. • Great Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed re-conquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join in proclaiming "hands off."
monroe doctrine MONROE DOCTRINE • Adams advised, "It would be more candid ... to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come in as a cock-boat in the wake of the British man-of-war." • Monroe accepted Adams's advice. • Not only must Latin America be left alone, he warned, but also Russia must not encroach southward on the Pacific coast. ". . . the American continents," • He stated, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power."
MONROE DOCTRINE • Referred to as America’s Self Defense Doctrine. • It is a continuation of President Washington’s neutrality and isolationist policies. • Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere No European Colonization in the Americas US recognized existing European Colonies Monroe Doctrine US will stay out of European affairs
MONROE DOCTRINE You are the President and his advisors: What would you do in the following situation using the Monroe Doctrine as your guideline….. Great Britain is in the process of sending troops to settle a border dispute between Argentina and Chile. Great Britain has had some and continual influence in both of these countries helping them financially. The British Government’s position is to act as the mediator or peace keeper in this situation. How would you respond to this situation now that the Monroe Doctrine is US policy?
Monroe doctrine1 MONROE DOCTRINE • You are the President and his advisors: What would you do in the following situation using the Monroe Doctrine as your guideline….. • Russia has loaned Argentina several billions of dollars to upgrade their nuclear technology…Argentina has defaulted (not paid) on repayment of the loans to Russia for 2 years……Russia has warned Argentina to begin repaying the loans or suffer economic sanctions (cutting off their trade with other countries) and lastly, a military invasion. Russia has also warned the U.S. to stay out of this situation since it does not concern them. • How would you respond to this situation now that the Monroe Doctrine is US policy?
SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES • NORTHEAST • Business and ManufacturingDaniel Webster____________ • Wanted Tariffs • Backed internal improvements • Wanted end to cheap public land • Increasingly nationalistic • Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it. EconomyLeader __________ Role ofGovernment
SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES • SOUTH • Cotton growing • John C. Calhoun • _____________ • Opposed tariffs and government spending on American System • Increasingly supportive of states’ rights • Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it. EconomyLeader __________ Role ofGovernment
SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES • WEST • Frontier agriculture • Henry Clay • _____________ • Supported internal improvements • Wanted cheap land • Loyal to the U.S. Govt. • Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue EconomyLeader __________ Role ofGovernment
ADAMS VS JACKSON corrupt • The Corrupt Bargain • Henry Clay gives his support to John Q. Adams and the House of Representatives chooses Adams as the President. • Two weeks later, Adams appoints Henry Clay as his Secretary of State…. • Jackson cries out corruption and calls this the “Corrupt Bargain.” • Jackson promises he would run again for the Presidency in 1828 and would smash Adams.
corrupt1 The Corrupt Bargain Suspicions of a “corrupt bargain” have been strengthened by entries in the diary of John Q. Adams. On January 1, 1825, after a public dinner, he wrote, “He (Clay) told me (in a whisper) that he should be glad to have with me soon some confidential conversation upon public affairs. I said I should be happy to have it whenever it might suit his convenience.” In the diary entry for January 9, reads in part, “Mr. Clay came at six and spent the evening with me in a long conversation explanatory of the past and prospective of the future.” Exactly a month later, with Clay’s backing, Adams was elected. This happened because Clay was Speaker of the House…..They also hated Andrew Jackson…...
New parties POLITICAL PARTIES AFTER ELECTION OF 1824 JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY Political world changed during the New Democracy. Two new political parties emerge • DEMOCRATS • Jackson and Calhoun • Believed in state’s rights and federal restraint in economic and social affairs. • Favored the liberty of the individual and were fiercely on guard against the inroads of privilege into the government. • Protected the common man. • NATIONAL REPUBLICANS • Adams, Clay and Webster • strong national govt. • Favored the BUS, tariffs, internal improvements, industry, public schools and moral reforms such as prohibition of liquor and abolition of slavery. • Best/privileged run the govt.