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DYNAMIC â€œDEVELOPMENTALâ€ ASSESSMENT VIEWED METATHEORETICALLY THROUGH THE ZONES OF POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT (ZsPD) Dorothy (Dot) Robbins ISCAR 2008.
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DYNAMIC “DEVELOPMENTAL” ASSESSMENT VIEWED METATHEORETICALLY THROUGH THE ZONES OF POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT (ZsPD)Dorothy (Dot) RobbinsISCAR 2008
THIS PRESENTATION WILL BEGIN WITH TRADITIONAL VIEWS OF DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT, WHICH IS A LARGE STEP FORWARD IN THINKING. AND, INDEED, TRADITIONAL TESTING WITHIN A DYNAMIC APPROACH IS NECESSARY. IT SHOULD BE STATED THAT PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING IS ALSO IMPORTANT. HOWEVER, THE QUESTION ARISES REGARDING THE “POST-TEST” WITHIN DA. FROM THE VYGOTSKIAN NON-CLASSICAL PERSPECTIVE, THE POST-TEST SHOULD OFTEN [NOT ALWAYS] BE IN THE FORM OF A PRODUCT THAT IS PERFORMATIVE (e.g., PERFORMANCE, CREATIVE FILMS, WEBSITE VIDEOS, THEATRE, DANCE, SERVICE LEARNING COLLABORATION, POETRY, LITERARY INTERPRETATIONS, ETC.). IN OTHER WORDS, THERE SHOULD BE ROOM FOR PSYCHOMETRIC, TRADITIONAL DA POST-TESTING, AND FOR NON-CLASSICAL “POST-TESTING,” WHICH IS IN LINE WITH A TOTALLY NEW VIEW OF LEARNING DEVELOPMENT. IN A NON-CLASSICAL DA APPROACH, THE FOCUS IS NOT ON A REVISION OF THE PRE-TEST, BUT ON A PERFORMATIVE PRODUCT. THIS VIEW WORKS BEST IN NON-TRADITIONAL APPROACHES AT THE PRESENT TIME, WHERE THE ENVIRONMENT CAN BECOME SPONTANEOUS.
THERE IS NO SINGLE DEFINITION OF DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT (DA). THERE IS NOT A SINGLE PROCEDURE OR TEST BATTERY.
HOWEVER, THERE IS
ONE SINGLE GOAL:
DA REQUIRES A DIFFERENT ATTITUDE OF THE ASSESSOR.
“THE FOCUS OF D.A. IS ON THE ASSESSOR’S ABILITY TO DISCOVER THE MEANS OF FACILITATING THE LEARNING OF THE CHILD, NOT ON THE CHILD’S DEMONSTRATION OF ABILITY TO THE ASSESSOR.” (Lidz, 1991, 9)
THE ASSESSOR IS A MEDIATOR, BELIEVING THAT ALL LEANERS CAN DEVELOP.
DA IS SPECIFICALLY VYGOTSKIAN
DA DOES NOT SUBSTITUTE FOR OTHER APPROACHES…
DA BEGINS WHERE PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING ENDS, WITH VERY DIFFERENT OUTCOMES.
THEREFORE, CRITICIZING DA FOR A LACK OF TRADITIONAL STASTICAL VALIDITY, RELIABILITY, etc. REFLECTS A LACK OF UNDERSTANDING.
DIFFERENCE IN DA “TESTING” AND “ASSESSMENT”
DA TESTING NORMALLY REMAINS WITHIN INSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS
PRE-TEST – INTERVENTION – POST-TEST
IT HELPS STUDENTS, CLIENTS TO SUCCEED ON THE POST-TEST
IN ESSENCE, (IT IS SUGGESTED) THAT IF STUDENTS ARE TEST-SPECIFICALLY TRAINED-, THEN THEIR POST-TRAINING PERFORMANCE IMPROVES. SIMILAR RESULTS HAVE BEEN OBTAINED WITH THE TEST-TRAIN-RETEST PARADIGM BY USING STATIC TESTS…”
(E. Grigorenko and R. Sternberg, 1998)
POEHNER AND LANTOLF HAVE COMPARED THE INTERVENTIONIST DA APPROACH AS BEING STRONGLY PSYCHOMETRIC, AS OPPOSED TO THE INTERACTIONIST DA APPROACH, WHICH IS RELATED TO VYGOTSKY’S ZPD.
THE KEY TO THE INTERACTIONIST DA APPROACH IS NOT ONLY “INTERACTION,” BUT AN ATTITUDE THAT TRANSFORMS THE LEARNING SITUATION INTO MOTIVATION THAT IS EQUALLY SHARED BY BOTH THE LEARNER AND ASSESSOR.THIS REPRESENTS A TRUE “LABORATORY OF LEARNING.”
PRE-TEST – INTERACTION – POST-TEST
AT THIS POINT, THERE IS A TRANSITION FROM THE TRADITIONAL DA FOCUS TO THE NON-CLASSICAL DA FOCUS. MANY ASPECTS WITHIN THIS NON-CLASSICAL APPROACH ARE FOUND IN BOTH INTERVENTIONST AND INTERACTIONIST DA. WITHIN NON-CLASSICAL PSYCHOLOGY, THERE IS A FOCUS ON CREATING A NEW ENVIRONMENT (BE IT IN THE CLASSROOM OR OTHER SETTINGS), WITH THE END GOAL BEING A PRODUCT THAT IS OFTEN PERFORMATIVE. THE BASIC IDEA IS TO USE NEWLY GAINED METACOGNITIVE SKILLS WITHIN A CULTURAL PRODUCT THAT IS THE RESULT OF THE MEDIATED-INTERACTIONAL ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISHED BY THE ASSESSOR AND LEARNER(S). WITHIN FL TEACHING, FOR EXAMPLE, THERE CAN CERTAINLY BE A POST-TEST + PROJECT, OR IN HIGHER LEVELS THE PROJECT CAN TAKE THE PLACE OF THE POST-TEST. WITHIN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOMS, THE PROJECT CAN EASILY REPLACE THE POST-TEST, OR BE USED AS A FINAL EXAM; ESPECIALLY IF FL STUDENTS ARE ENCOURAGED TO TAKE OUTSIDE EXAMS AS WELL.
ELENA KRAVTSOVA (2007) [unedited]
THE ART OF PSYCHOLOGY WAS ONE OF THE MAIN HIGHLIGHTS OF VYGOTSKY’S ACTIVITY. HE BEGAN RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AFTER HE HAD WORKED AS A TEACHER OF LITERATURE, THEATRE CRITIC, ETC. IT WAS HIS EXPERIENCE IN THIS SPHERE THAT ALLOWED HIM TO FOUND A NEW SPHERE OF PSYCHOLOGY, CALLED ‘NON-CLASSICAL” PSYCHOLOGY. NON-CLASSICAL PSYCHOLOGY INCLUDES NEITHER THE STAGES OF SPECIAL RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THAT RESEARCH’S RESULTS, NOR THEORY AND PRACTICE. INSTEAD, NON-CLASSICAL PSYCHOLOGY IS A SCIENCE WHICH STUDIES THE HUMAN PSYCHE AND PERSONALITY AND EXISTS IN BOTH
THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL STUDIES, AND IN THE REAL LIFE OF A PERSON. THIS PSYCHOLOGY IS THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COOPERATION, IMPLYING, FIRST, THE COOPERATION OF A PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST WITH HIS/HER COLLEAGUES AND WITH OTHER PEOPLE WORKING IN OTHER SPHERES. IN NON-CLASSICAL PSYCHOLOGY, THE PSYCHOLOGIST DOES NOT CORRECT, FORM OR DEVELOP ANYTHING; INSTEAD, HE/SHE CREATES SITUATIONS AND CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH HE/SHE CAN CORRECT, FORM OR DEVELOP. AT THE SAME TIME, THESE SITUATIONS AND CIRCUMSTANCES STRIVE TO STRENGTHEN AND DEVELOP INHERENT PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS. CORRECTION AND REHABILITATION ARE POSSIBLE ONLY AS A LAST RESORT. THE BEST EXAMPLE OF NON-CLASSICAL PSYCHOLOGY IS CONSTRUCTIVE PSYCHOLOGY—THE METHODOLOGY AND MAIN PRINCIPLES OF WHICH ARE BASED ON THE CULTURAL-HISTORICAL APPROACH…
VYGOTSKY’S CONSTRUCTIVE METHOD MEANS THAT PUPILS AND TEACHERS – AS WELL AS PSYCHOLOGISTS AND THOSE WHOM THEY HELP TO DEVELOP - LIVE COMMON LIVES. THE CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH IN NON-CLASSICAL PSYCHOLOGY MEANS MOVEMENT FROM INHERENT MENTAL FUNCTIONS TO HIGHER ONES, FROM ACTUAL DEVELOPMENT TO THE ZPD, AND FROM THE PRESENT TO THE FUTURE….
PARADOX: IN NON-CLASSICAL DA PSYCHOLOGY THERE IS A NEW PRODUCT (e.g., POEM, DANCE, THEATER, FILM, PERFORMANCE, etc.); HOWEVER, THE END FOCUS IS ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP PERSONALITY. THE ENGAGEMENT OF THE ASSESSOR TAKES MORE TIME THAN MOST PEOPLE CAN IMAGINE, AND IT IS A LONG, OFTEN PAINFUL PROCESS. BUT, THE END PRODUCT IS WORTH THE FRUSTRATION.
THE PROCESS OF INTERACTIONIST DA IS A BASIC TOOL IN CREATING THE ZPD, WHICH ITSELF CANNOT BE MEASURED
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (WHICH IS A KEY UNIT IN ALL DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT)
WITHIN DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT,
“THE ZPD IS THE MEETING PLACE BETWEEN THE INNER, MENTAL WORLD OF THE CHILD AND THE EXTERNAL INFLUENCES OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL ENVIRONMENT, AS REPRESENTED BY THE ASSESSOR. THE GOAL OF THE INTERACTION IS TO PROMOTE THROUGH SUCH COGNITIVE TOOLS AS LANGUAGE, INTERNALIZATION OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL ENVIRONMENT.”
LEARNER VIEWED AS A TOTAL, COMPLETE “PERSONALITY”
INTERVENTION IS NOW VIEWED AS MEDIATION (WHICH IS ALSO AN ANCHOR OF INTERACTIONIST DA)
THROUGH MEDIATED-DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES, THE ASSESSOR IS FOCUSED ON THE POTENTIAL SUCCESS OF THE LEARNER AS A COMPLETE “PERSONALITY”
ASSESSORS NEED TO BE TRAINED IN NON-CLASSICAL, VYGOTSKIAN PSYCHOLOGY
PROCESS IS VIEWED WITHIN METACOGNITION
(PROCESS IS LOCATED WITHIN THE HMF, WHERE SKILLS LEARNED CAN BE EXTRAPOLATED TO OTHER AREAS)
“Students are commonly taught content…and how to do things…what they often fail to acquire is an understanding of why that knowledge is important, how it should be employed, and when. In short, they lack the metacognitive awareness to use their knowledge effectively, and thus they are unlikely to see the value of that knowledge or be able to retain it. Metacognition is fundamentally related to motivation.” (Das, 1994)
PROCESS VS. PRODUCT ---PROCESS + PRODUCT
“BECOMING” + “TRANSFORMATION”
PRESENT- TO – FUTURE
UNITY OF TEACHER/STUDENT, PSYCHOLOGIST/CLIENT
MEDIATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE
ASSESSMENT BY TEACHING
A PROCESS + PRODUCT APPROACH REQUIRES A TRANSCENDENCE OF DYADIC, TRIADIC COMPONENTS: NEW UNITS OF ANALYSIS INCLUDE THE UNITY OF THE LEARNER, ASSESSOR, RELATIONSHIP, ENVIRONMENT, ETC.
INSTEAD OF THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT, WE HAVE THE UNITY OF ZONES OF POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT.
THE ASSESSOR ASSISTS IN THE UNFOLDING OF THE LEARNERS DEVELOPMENT AS A “PERSONALITY.”
INSTEAD OF PRETEST-INTERVERNTION-POSTTEST, WE HAVE A PROCESS STARTING WITH THE
INITIAL SITUATION –MEDIATION-PRODUCT (OFTEN A PERFORMANCE –BASED PRODUCT)
UNIFYING SCIENTIFIC + SPONTANEOUS CONCEPTS
PLAY (IMITATION + COMPLETION) WITHIN A CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING
AESTHETICS + POETRY + THEATER ++++
COOPERATION AND HELP WITH UNFOSSILIZING OLD PATTERNS
NON-CLASSICAL DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT IS NOT AN ATTEMPT TO REPLACE PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING, NOR TRADITIONAL DA POST-TESTING WITH SOMETHING NEW….IT IS A DIFFERENT APPROACH….TO CHANGE THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN GENERAL. THE “POST-TEST” WITHIN THE TRADITIONAL DA APPROACH IS AN ACCEPTED MEASURE OF RESULTS. IN THE EXAMPLES OF NON-CLASSICAL DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT GIVEN, IT IS CLEAR THAT THE ENTIRE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT SHOULD BE CHANGED, WHERE TESTING HAS A TOTALLY NEW VALUE. THE GOAL IS OFTEN A PERFORMATIVE PRODUCT, WHICH CAN LEAD TO A REAL POSITIVE TRANSFORMATION OF THE ENTIRE PERSONALITY OF AN INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP. THIS FOCUS ON PROCESS, WITH A PERFORMATIVE PRODUCT, IS DIFFICULT BEYOND EXPLANATION, AND REQUIRES THE COMPLETE VISION AND DEDICATION OF THE ASSESSOR IN ORDER TO VISUALIZE THE “END PRODUCT” FROM THE BEGINNING.
My silent darkness--clearer than the dazzling sunlight,
Is all you would hide from me.
More than words, your hands speak to me,
Of all you decline to say.
Trembling anxiety or quivering rage,
True friendship or a lie.
All is revealed in a touch of a hand.
With a stranger, and/or a friend.
I see everything in my silent darkness.
Give me your hand and I will tell you who you are.
In 1989, Elena Kravtsova and GennadiKravtsov, together with their laboratory of 23 people, established K-5 Golden Key Schools. Today there are approximately 35 schools all over Russia. The focus is on establishing a magical world for children, using Tolstoy’s fairytale, the Golden Key. These schools are open to all children.
Using the concept of the ZPD, children are placed in families each morningbefore going to class. Each family has 15 to 25 children between the ages of 3 and 10. Children meet in their families every school day to discuss and learn to solve problems. Older children learn to model more competent peer behavior. Parents must be involved at all levels of their child’s education. Parents become students and students become teachers
The Happeningsare based around historical events, seasons of the year, and personal events. The entire school, and parents, come together once a month for a happening, which has been prepared during that month. Example, Australian boy at the Golden Key School in Balashika (suburb of Moscow).
One morning, when the children were in their families a Russian woman, in a traditional costume, came to announce that a young Australian boy was lost. Together, all families went downstairs to the museum to meet the young boy and see how they could help him. He spoke no Russian so communication was in English. The groups were divided according to ages in order to discuss how they could help the young boy and then they went to their classrooms. The youngest group made presents, dolls out of yarn, pottery etc.
The next group studied the geography of Australia, the distance between Moscow and Australia and called the airlines to see how much a flight would cost. The oldest children studied the cities of Australia, the weather, tribes, music etc, and connected this with a mathematics lesson. Before lunch the children left to prepare for a Happening. They wanted to show the young boy Russian culture before he left for home.
Parents and foreign visitors were present for the Happening and the teachers and children were dressed in traditional Russian costumes. They danced, sang, recited their own poetry, performed skits, and gave their gifts to the young boy. Everyone said good-bye and a man came and drove him away to the airport, with all the children, teachers, and guests waiving good-bye.
FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEXTBOOKS SHOULD PREFERABLY BE DESIGNED LIKE A WORK OF INTERESTING LITERATURE ALLOWING FOR THE READER’S “TRANSFERENCE” OF ITS “HEROS.”
THE STUDENT SHOULD BE CONFRONTED WITH THE TASK OF PERFORMING A SPEECH ACT “TOGETHER WITH” OR “INSTEAD OF” THE HERO.
THIS TYPE OF MOTIVATION INCLUDES “SPEECH INTENTION,” A CORE ASPECT OF “FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR.” [FROM CONTENT TO EXPRESSION]
THE MASTERING OF A NEW LANGUAGE IS A TRANSITION TO A NEW WORLD IMAGE.
[A. A. Leontiev]
At the core of our practice is independence from the university and from government and corporate funders…Our goal was and remains to impact positively on the lives of ordinary people and, at the same time, to challenge institutionalized psychology to reform itself.
CONCLUSIONSWITHIN THE TRADITIONAL UNDERSTANDING OF DA, THE BURDEN OF MOST OF THE EXPERIENCE IS ON THE ASSESSOR, WITH A BELIEF IN LEARNER/PARTICIPANT DEVELOPMENT. HOWEVER, AT THE END OF THE NON-CLASSICAL DA PROCESS, WITH THE “PERFORMANCE PRODUCT,” THE LEARNER/PARTICIPANT BECOMES A C0-ASSESSOR. DURING MOST OF THE DA PROCESS, ZONES OF POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT REACH CRITICAL AND VERY DIFFICULT POINTS OF FRUSTRATION FOR BOTH THE LEARNER/PARTICIPANT AND THE ASSESSOR. HOWEVER, WHEN SUCCESSFUL, THERE IS NORMALLY THE EXPERIENCE OF CARTHARSIS, REACHING A HIGHER LEVEL OF PERSONAL SENSE AND ACHIEVEMENT.