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Political Effects & Changes After the Rwandan Genocide May 14, 2010 Group 4: Margaret Flazer Ashlyn Kawamata Francesca Koethe
What were the Effects? After the Rwandan genocide, there were dramatic changes that influenced the political sphere: • the government structure • internal reconstruction • foreign policy
So What?! • Why care about Rwanda after the fact? • We stop caring, we stop helping • We need to help them rebuild • If not: chaos and killings may relapse
History of Rwandan Genocide • Major Factors led to killings • Belgian power: favor Tutsi over Hutu • Tutsi-elite class (own cows) • Hutu-Working class • Racial tensions political turmoil • 1959 civil war: hate on Hutu power • President Juvenal Hayarimana (Hutu) lose power • Shift hate to Tutsis: gain favoritism/power
100 Days of Killing • April 6,1994: Hayarimana assassinated • Blame Tutsis mass killings • 800,000 killed: fastest genocide ever • Tutsi take over Kigali July 4th 1994 • Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) take power
Change in Political Structure • Tutsis take power (RPF enforce) • Paul Kagame take over • Focus on building peace and unity • Attempt to erase Hutu Rebel groups • Party Systems now free to opinion • 9 different parties (6 affiliate w/ RPF) • Kept on short leash • many rules to prevent racial tensions
Women: increase due to lack of males Nurture and forgive more naturally Gov’t rule: 50% of parliament must be female International leaders Example: Aloysie Cyanayirel: chief justice Hutus: Decrease in size Keep some in high ranked spots Represent all in government A way to forgive Demographics in System Change
Change in the Justice System • Need to persecute Hutus for justice • International Tribunal of Rwanda • Tanzania: Setup by UN • Search for planners/directors of genocide • 25 huge cases completed • Emmanual Rukundo: 25 years sentence
Change in Justice System cont’d • Gacacca Court: Many to persecute locally • Get through trials quicker • One per district: 19 judges each • Most courts closing in July 2010 (effective) • Prisoners: bad conditions • i.e. Gitarma Prison- unregulated • Now: release most prisoners over time
Emotional Building Peace, Reconciliation and Unity on the Lessons of Memory Emphasize moral values Teach history of genocide Learn from past Physical Transport Sector Development Project Improve roads stimulate economy Improve stability and quality of life Job opportunities increase Country Reconstruction
Reconstruct Education System • Joint Education Sector Support: • strengthen technology & science class • Future leaders to stabilize country • Train teachers and regulate progress • Specific studies: bio-chem & math • Provide for students: • New labs and equipment • Textbook availability
CHINA Give supplies: rice & sugar Rebuild country Hospitals and buildings Rwanda trade aid for faith Give niobium and tantalum ore, and paulowia logs UNITED STATES Little contribution Drop supplies Train Rwandan military Remove land mines International Relations
International Relations cont’d • Rwanda ministers campaign new activities • Help to gain support & money abroad • Ex-Forces Armees Rwandaises • Recruit rebel Hutus for Rwandan army • Stop revolts
Genocide Hutu displacement Leave to be free of persecution 650,000 leave to Ruhengeri and Gisenvi 2 Million flee to Congo Genocide Tutsis return 1997: 1.8 Million go home, feel safe Effects of Displacement: refugee camps Orphans left behind, no family NGO’s like UNICEF help kids and refugees Educate, council, and support External Displacement
As Global Citizens… • WE will educate on status of Rwanda • Without constant observation • Could fall back into genocide • Donation: • By becoming economically stable emotionally stable • Help prevent genocide • Learn from the past and grow • How will you participate? • We can do nothing
The CHOICE is yours Or we can participate in Rwanda support
Picture URL’s • http://www.togetherforadoption.org/wp-content/media/as-we-forgive.jpg • http://www.asweforgivemovie.com/images/awf_ra_sm.jpg • http://www.snvworld.org/en/countries/tanzania/aboutus/news/PublishingImages/Education.JPG • http://blogs.technet.com/photos/unlimited_potential_team/images/3285641/original.aspx • http://www.urbanfaith.com/images/RwandanForgiveness450x300.jpg • http://blogs.dfid.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/classroom-construction-supported-by-sbs-contribution-from-dfid.jpg • http://www.constructionkenya.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/road-under-construction.jpg • http://www.fjau.edu.cn/upload/image/lwdkg2(1).jpg • http://www.africom.mil/file.asp?HR=2&ID=20091019121120 • http://akorra.com/sites/default/files/Gitarama_prison.jpg • http://nerrati.net/afrique-dossier/images/afr-centrale/rdc/armee/soldats/soldats-fardc-formes-par-les-parachutistes-belgs.jpg • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://blog.earthshope.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/shapeimage_1-13.jpg&imgrefurl=http://blog.earthshope.org/tag/rwanda/&usg=__IrIh8yulIktkblMY87PDrf57Hj0=&h=400&w=700&sz=88&hl=en&start=2&sig2=CYs2tdbCCN5fsse06QIu6w&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=N2kDWOsYFTTLHM:&tbnh=80&tbnw=140&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drwanda%2Bministers%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=oF7qS8y4LZbutgPBz9XSBw • http://drccrisisguide.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/displacement-in-kivu2.jpg • http://iconicphotos.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/machete-rwanda.jpg • http://patdollard.com/wp-content/uploads/rawanda.jpg • http://www.globalsolutions.org/files/general/Rwandan-Genocide.jpg • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.globalresearch.ca/articlePictures/habyarimanaplane1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php%3Fcontext%3Dva%26aid%3D11133&usg=__GQ2gEo0iRZFAmUz0woojbV_-1OM=&h=395&w=610&sz=96&hl=en&start=5&sig2=9WSEviDA1RIed1m-m9DdcQ&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=QaJojS6mEIQWDM:&tbnh=88&tbnw=136&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpresident%2Bhabyarimana%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=pmPqS7bTHYeMswPs_MnYBw • http://www.enjoyfrance.com/images/stories/france/political/Paul-Kagame.jpg • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://ugandarecord.co.ug/photos/Rwanda%2520---%2520RPF%2520commander%2520Maj.%2520Gen.%2520Paul%2520Kagame%2520and%2520escorts,%2520Feb.%252011,%25201993-20100204-125809.png&imgrefurl=http://my.barackobama.com/page/community/group/TheIRInternationalRelationsForum&usg=__Sr-XD5hpqvfZWj1T8tf2_zli_VQ=&h=265&w=398&sz=332&hl=en&start=9&sig2=9naBvJW2Q6Ut0r8B5iCtkw&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=LJc2z6W-pTUb0M:&tbnh=83&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3DRwandan%2Bpolitical%2Bparties%2BRPF%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=d2XqS-GyD5CSswOen9zDBw • http://media3.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/photo/2008/10/26/PH2008102602534.jpg • http://static.rnw.nl/migratie/www.rnw.nl/images/assets/16682429-redirected • http://www.rnw.nl/data/files/imagecache/must_carry/images/lead/ictr%20building.jpg • http://www.childrensworld.org/downloads/aocm7.jpg • http://i.telegraph.co.uk/telegraph/multimedia/archive/01381/rwanda1_1381373c.jpg