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DNA, RNA and Proteins. Ms. Hughes. DNA Genetic Material. Mendel showed that traits are passed from parent to offspring. Instructions for how genes are inherited. Genes are made up of segments of DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid.

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dna genetic material
DNA Genetic Material
  • Mendel showed that traits are passed from parent to offspring.
  • Instructions for how genes are inherited.
  • Genes are made up of segments of DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid.
  • DNA is the primary material that causes recognizable, inheritable characteristics in related groups of organisms.
genetic material
Genetic Material
  • DNA is composed of four nucleotide subunits:
    • Each nucleotide has the same five carbon sugar molecule and phosphate group but different nitrogenous bases:
      • Adenine
      • Guanine
      • Cytosine
      • Thymine
shape of dna
Shape of DNA
  • Winding stair case – 1
  • Parts of the nucleotide subunits – 2
  • 1’s find another 1 and compare notes!
  • 2’s find another 2 and compare notes!
slide5

If you are a 1 find a 2

  • If you are a 2 find a 1
  • Share your information but DO NOT COPY!!!
  • You must explain it to your partner!!!
information in dna
Information in DNA
  • Pyrimidines: Thymine and Cytosine
  • Purines: Adenine and Guanine
  • DNA is in the shape of a spiral stair case/ double helix of two complementary strands of nucleotides.
base pairing rule
Base Pairing Rule
  • A always binds with T
  • G always binds with C
  • So A=T and G=C
  • Purine always binds to pyrimidine
  • Watson, Franklin and Crick discovered 3D model .
chargaff s observation
Chargaff’s observation
  • A = T
  • G = C
  • Base pair rule
activity
Activity
  • Read and summarize watson and cricks model of DNA.
  • K,W,L
    • Knew
    • Would like to learn more about
    • Learned
activity homework
Activity/homework
  • Draw, label and explain a strand of DNA including the nucleotide subunits, base pairing and complimentarity of the strands.
dna replication
DNA Replication
  • DNA replication: the process of making a copy of DNA.
  • In DNA replication, the DNA molecule unwinds, and the two sides split. Then new nucleotides are added to each side until two identical sequences result. DNA replication occurs before a cell divides so that each cell has a complete copy of DNA. The basic steps of DNA are:
video
Video
  • DNA replication McGraw Hill
  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120076/micro04.swf::DNA%20Replication%20Fork
unwinding and separating dna strands
Unwinding and Separating DNA Strands
  • The double helix unwinds.
  • Complementary strands of DNA separate from each other and form Y shapes areas are called replication forks.
adding complementary bases
Adding Complementary Bases
  • At the replication fork, new nucleotides are added to each side and new base pairs are formed according to the base pairing rules.
  • The original two strands serve as a template for two new strands.
formation of two identical dna molecules
Formation of Two Identical DNA Molecules
  • DNA replication produces two identical DNA molecules
replication proteins
Replication Proteins
  • During the replication of DNA, many proteins form a machinelike complex of moving parts.
dna helicase
DNA Helicase
  • DNA helicases unwind the DNA double helix during DNA replication.
  • This process causes the helix to unwind and forms a replication fork.
dna polymerase
DNA Polymerase
  • Proteins called DNA polymerases catalyze the formation of the DNA molecule.
  • The polymerases add nucleotides that pair with each base to form two new double helixes.
  • DNA polymerases also have a “proofreading” function. During DNA replication, errors sometimes occur, and the wrong nucleotide is added to the new strand. DNA polymerase cannot add another nucleotide unless the previous nucleotide is correctly paired.
prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
  • In prokaryotic cells, replication starts at a single site. In eukaryotic cells, replication starts at many sites along the chromosome.
prokaryotic dna replication
Prokaryotic DNA Replication
  • Prokaryotic cells usually have a single DNA molecule, or chromosomes. Prokaryotic chromosomes are a closed loop, may contain protein, and are attached to the inner cell membrane.
eukaryotic dna replication
Eukaryotic DNA Replication
  • While prokaryotes have a single chromosome/loop, eukaryotic cells often have several chromosomes.
  • By starting DNA replication at many sites along the chromosome they can replicate their DNA faster than prokaryotes, two distinct replication forks form at each start site, and replication occurs in opposite directions.
activity dna replication
Activity: DNA replication
  • Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic
activity1
Activity
  • Create a comic strip explaining DNA replication of a eukaryotic organism using all proteins and correct terminology.
rna and gene replication
RNA and Gene Replication
  • Proteins perform most of the functions of cells. DNA provides the original “recipe”.
  • RNA: ribonucleic acid allows genetic information to be taken from DNA and proteins be made.
  • Gene expression: the manifestation of genes into specific traits.
transcription dna to rna
Transcription: DNA to RNA
  • The first stage of gene expression.
  • RNA is making proteins from the information found in DNA.
translation rna to proteins
Translation: RNA to Proteins
  • Second stage of gene expression.
  • Information form RNA is used to make specific proteins.
rna major player
RNA: Major Player
  • In cells three types of RNA complement DNA and translate the genetic code into proteins.
  • RNA vs. DNA
    • Both have four bases and carry genetic information.
    • RNA is composed of one strand of nucleotides and DNA is composed of two strands of nucleotides.
    • RNA substitutes Uracil for Thymine.
1 2 3
1, 2, 3
  • 1 – messenger RNA
  • 2 – transfer RNA
  • 3 – ribosomal RNA
  • 1 share with other 1’s
  • Then 1, 2, 3
types of rna
Types of RNA
  • Messenger RNA: carries instructions for a gene to the site of translation.
  • Transfer RNA: reads the messenger mRNA sequence.
  • Ribosomal RNA: found in ribosomes, transports proteins from the ER as they are produced.
transcription reading the gene
Transcription: Reading the Gene
  • During transcription , the information in a specific region of DNA is transcribed, or copied into RNA.
  • Step 1: RNA polymerase binds to the promoter ( a specific DNA sequence/start location).
  • Step 2: RNA polymerase unwinds the dbl helix to expose both paired nucleotide bases.
  • Step 3: RNA polymerase links and binds complementary base units to each strand of DNA.
  • The result once the stop codon is reached is one strand of mRNA is produced.
transcription vs replication
Transcription vs. Replication
  • Both use DNA as a template.
  • Transcription – mRNA is made, using portions of each strand of DNA
  • Translation – DNA is made, using both entire strands of DNA.
slide33

Transcribe and then translate this sequence:

  • A T C G G C G GG A T TT A T T C CC G
homework
Homework
  • Create a comic strip for the steps of transcription and translation of a eukaryotic organism.
genetic code 3 letter words
Genetic Code: 3 letter “words”
  • Each 3 nucleotide sequence is called a codon.
  • Each codon unit codes for a specific amino acid.
  • Turn to page 307 and look at the amino acids that are possible there are 20.
translation rna to proteins1
Translation: RNA to proteins
  • Translation occurs in a sequence of steps, involves three kinds of RNA and results in a complete polypeptide.
complexities of gene expression
Complexities of Gene Expression
  • The relationship of gene expression is complex.
  • Despite the neatness of the genetic code, every gene cannot be simply linked to a single outcome.
slide39

Transcribe and then translate this sequence:

  • ATC GGC GGG ATT TAT TCC CG
  • Now use the codon chart to determine which amino acids this codes for.