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DNA, RNA, and Proteins
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  1. DNA, RNA, and Proteins

  2. DNA and Protein Synthesis • DNA contains the genetic information to • make amino acids • Amino acids combine to make proteins • These proteins determine the physical traits • of an organism and control cellular functions. • Proteins do everything, • and DNA gets all the • credit! • Think of them as tiny minions • who do all the work

  3. DNA and Protein Synthesis

  4. DNA and Protein Synthesis • Codon: three bases code for a specific protein: • ex: AAA = Lysine • The codons code for 20 amino acids • Just like the alphabet has 26 letters to make all • the words we know, the 20 amino acids make • all the different proteins found in living • organisms • The codons are the template for protein synthesis, • which takes place on the ribosomes (rRNA) in the • cytoplasm

  5. DNA and Protein Synthesis – Codons and amino acids Name the Amino Acid: UAU CCG AGU GCA Tyrosine Proline Serine Alanine

  6. DNA and Protein Synthesis But… How does the information get from the DNA to the cytoplasm? mRNA

  7. DNA and Protein Synthesis - Transcription • Transcription: • 1) DNA unzips • 2) mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) copies info from DNA using base pairings • RNA is different from DNA • Single stranded, not double stranded • Instead of deoxyribose, it has ribose • instead of Thymine, it uses Uracil • 3) Carries the genetic code from the nucleus to the • ribosome in the cytoplasm

  8. DNA and Protein Synthesis - Translation • Translation: • rRNA (ribosomal RNA) attaches to mRNA and starts reading the codons • tRNA (transfer RNA) – carries amino acids and attaches them to the growing protein chain • When protein production is complete, the ribosome releases the protein chain

  9. DNA and Protein Synthesis - Summary

  10. DNA and Protein Synthesis Practice making mRNA using the DNA template DNA G A T T A C A CU AAUGU mRNA

  11. DNA and Protein Synthesis • Amino acids are linked together in the same • order as the codons , creating a protein chain • Just like linking letters to make words, linking • amino acids makes proteins mRNA CUAAUGUGC Amino Acid Amino Acid Amino Acid

  12. DNA and Mutations • Mutations are any changes that take place in DNA: • Can be spontaneous or caused by mutagens • ex: Chemicals, high temperatures, UV light, • radiation • Can change the genetic code, and be replicated • when forming new body cells. • In sex cells, can be passed on to offspring. • Mutations can be neutral, beneficial, or harmful • ex: Blue eyes – a mutation that occurred 6-10,000 years ago, can be traced back to one ancestor • what kind of mutation is that?

  13. DNA and Mutations – Lets looks at different mutations THE DOG BIT THE CAT

  14. DNA and Mutations - Substitution • THE DOG BIT THE CAT • Substitution - Replace just one letter: • THE DOG BIT THE CAR

  15. DNA and Mutations - Deletion • THE DOG BIT THE CAT • Deletion: Delete just one letter (T): • THE DOG BIT HEC AT

  16. DNA and Mutations-Insertions • THE DOG BIT THE CAT • Insertion - Add just one letter (E): • THE DOE GBI TTH ECA T • Cells have “proof reading” proteins that constantly check the DNA and fix errors, so most are corrected

  17. Protein Synthesis- you try it!

  18. DNA transcription and translation- you try it!