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Academic Vocabulary. Today’s Agenda: How do words get learned and stay learned? What do we mean by “academic vocabulary”? 3. Implicit and explicit vocabulary instruction 4. Classroom practices that grow vocabulary. Presenter: Amy Benjamin
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Academic Vocabulary • Today’s Agenda: • How do words get learned and • stay learned? • What do we mean by “academic • vocabulary”? • 3. Implicit and explicit vocabulary • instruction • 4. Classroom practices that grow • vocabulary Presenter: Amy Benjamin You may access any of today’s visuals at: www.amybenjamin.com
Rich • Gradual • Cumulative • Recursive • Aggressive • Purposeful • Pervasive • Goals: • Vocabulary growth in authentic situations • Improved ability to derive meaning of • unfamiliar words • 3. Positive attitude about words and language The visuals for today’s presentation are available for your classroom use. Feel free to access them at www.amybenjamin.com
Implicit: Natural language acquisition through immersion • Aggressive • Purposeful • Pervasive • Persistent Explicit: Planned instruction on targeted words: Etymology (word histories) Morphology (word parts Estimation: 3% to 20% of instructional time spent on vocabulary
absorption superhydrophilicity superhydrophobicity
“Lotus Effect” Learning: Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl Vocabulary Words: Algae—seaweed Bulwark—a wall built for defense Estuary– wide mouth of a river where it empties into the sea Incandescence—brightness given off by a hot object Mangrove—a tropical tree Poultice—herbal medicines applied to a wound or sore Undulating—waving, swinging
“Rose Effect” Learning: Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl Mangrove: a tropical tree that grows in clusters very close to a body of water What do we notice about mangrove trees? (other than “mangrove”) What might I google to get a picture of a mangrove tree? Did you ever see mangrove trees? where?
“Rose Effect” Learning: Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl Poultice: a mix of herbs or other plants, crushed and placed inside cloth, to be applied to a wound as a home remedy Poultices can be made of herbs, garlic, carrots, potatoes, ginger, lemon, etc.
incandescence: glow example non- example “ Watering Can Effect” Learning: Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl adj: incandescent eyes Synonyms and Near Synonyms: illumination radiance gleam glistening glittering glint brilliance Related words: candle candidate kindle Sentence:Under an incandescent sliver of the moon, the trees appeared life-like..
What if ad executives taught vocabulary? repetition association with emotion association with an image humor story novelty
apprentice: (n) one bound by legal agreement to work for another for a specified time in return for his training in a trade, an art, or a business scheme: (n, v) a systematic plan of action Definition contains unfamiliar language Definition can be too simplistic and therefore misleading Limited information Usually, no context Not all of the information about a word is captured in a definition
“Charlotte, are you thirsty? Would you like some juice? What kind of juice do you want? Do you want apple juice? That’s the yellow juice that you liked at Nana’s. No? Do you want the purple juice? The grape juice? OK. Do you want your juice in the sippy cup or the Big Girl juice box? OK, now hold it carefully. Two hands. Don’t squeeze it! It’ll spill all over the place. Very carefully.Sip it through the straw.
BOSU II. New word for a simple but new concept
Categories of Word Knowledge: photosynthesis insulin quadratic equation calculus • New word/ new, complex concept • Concept may be understood on progressively deeper level III.
Of Limited Value… Lists alone Context alone Definitions alone Dictionaries and Glossaries alone Of Durable Value… Words in clusters Leisure reading Multiple exposures in various contexts Chances to speak, hear, write Manipulation of forms of words Classify and categorize word lists Word games, puzzles
Rules of Thumb New learners need SIX (meaningful) exposures to a new word during the initial lesson and at least THIRTY additional exposures during the ensuing month. The chances of learning a word after a single exposure in context are 10-15%. We learn most words through non-conscious effort, in pursuit of information of interest.
Visuals illuminate meaning Explicit Teaching: Etymology Illuminates Meaning nostalgia algia: pain neuralgia Gr: nostos: return home
Explicit Teaching: Personal connections Illuminate Meaning nostalgia Have you ever been homesick? Stories illuminate meaning
Teaching collocation facilitates use: I’m nostalgic for… I’m nostalgic about… feel nostalgic…. Explicit Teaching: Teaching morphology facilitates use nostalgia, nostalgic Have you ever felt nostalgic for elementary school? Connecting to related wordsfacilitates use: sentimental, memories, forgotten, reminds me of, evokative, deja vu
Tier 3: glossary word: Multisyllabic Specific to a subject area Latin or Greek-based topography, photosynthesis, isoceles triangle, sedimentary, oxygenated, cartographer Tier 2: Words of education, business, government, religion: Components: Prefix, root, suffix Latin-based elevation, formation, protrude, expansive, isolated, remote Tier 1: Basic conversational words: Friends & family 1 or 2 syllables Learned naturally, through exposure hills, grass, rocks, land, sky, clouds, fly, climb, green, high…
vexed sagacity waning veracity Academic Vocabulary: inversion causal fluctuate offset Literary Vocabulary:
Vocabulary List: The Tell-Tale Heart Foresight: Thoughtful regard for the future Dissimulation: Hidden under a false appearance Vexed: Troubled, distressed, caused agitation Sagacity: Sound judgment Hearkening: Giving careful attention Awe: A mixed feeling of reverence, fear, and wonder Distinctness: Unmistakable, clearly defined Over-acuteness: Very keen Concealment: A means of hiding Waned: Grown gradually less Scantlings: Small quantities or amounts
Understanding the words we meet in reading Target Word: Dictionary Definition: Visual: Draw or find a picture: My guess: Definition in my own words: Complete sentence of at least ____words: Must contain an action verb and a visual image.
“A noble spirit embiggens the smallest man.” -Jebediah Simpson
Should I spend time teaching this word explicitly? • Three Questions: • How useful is this word? Will students be likely to encounter it again • soon? Is it necessary for comprehension? • Will teaching this word explicitly equip the students with word-learning • skills that can be applied to other words? • 3. Am I enthusiastic about this word? Can I make it interesting?
Prior Knowledge: How well do I know these words? Strangers Acquaintances Friends
The Academic Word List (AWL): Background:The Academic Word List consists of 570 word families that are not in the most frequent 2,000 words of English but which occur frequently over a very wide range of academic texts. These 570 word families are grouped into ten subsets that reflect word frequency. A word like analyze falls into Subset 1, which contains the most frequent words, while the word adjacent falls into Subset 10 which includes the least frequent (among this list of high incidence words). The AWL is not restricted to a specific field of study. That means that the words are useful for learners studying in disciplines as varied as literature, science, health, business, and law. This high-utility academic word list does not contain technical words likely to appear in one, specific field of study such as amortization, petroglyph, onomatopoeia, or cartilage. Two-thirds of all academic English derive from Latin or Greek. Understandably, knowledge of the most high-incidence adademic words in English can significantly boost a student’s comprehension level of school-based reading material. Students who are taught these high-utility academic words and routinely placed in contexts requiring their usage are likely to be able to master academic material with more confidence and efficiency, wasting less time and energy in guessing words or consulting dictionaries than those who are only equipped with the most basic 2000-3000 words that characterize ordinary conversation. The following link gives you a two-page version of the list: http://www.doe.in.gov/TitleI/pdf/Word_List_Feldman.pdf Source: Coxhead, Averil. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 213-238.
Academic Word List: Subset 1 analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist context constitute contract data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method percent period principle proceed process policy require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary Academic Word List: Subset 2 achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate aspect assist category chapter commission community complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct consume credit culture design distinct equate element evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive potential previous primary purchase range region regulate regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select site strategy survey tradition transfer
Vocabulary-Content-Sentence (VCS)Daily Practice: analyze approach area assess assume authorityavailable benefit conceptconsist context constitutecontract data define derive distribute economy environmentestablishestimate evident factor finance formulafunction income indicateindividual interpretinvolveissue labor legal legislate major methodpercent period principle proceed processpolicy requireresearch respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theoryvary achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate aspect assist category chapter commission community complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct consume credit culture design distinct equate element evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive potential previous primary purchase range region regulate regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select site strategysurvey tradition transfer alternative circumstance comment compensatecomponent consent considerable constantconstrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclude fund framework illustrate immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layerlink locate maximize minor negateoutcomephilosophy physicalproportion publishreact register relyremovescheme sequenceshift specify sufficient technical technique technology valid volume Write a sentence about something we are learning this week, employing one of these words. You may change the form of the words to fit your sentence. Your sentence must be at least 8 words long.
Academic Word List: Subset 3 alternative circumstance comment compensate component consent considerable constant constrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclude fund framework illustrate immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layer link locate maximize minor negate outcome philosophy physical proportion publish react register rely remove scheme sequence shift specify sufficient technical technique technology valid volume Academic Word List: Subset 4 access adequacy annual apparent approximate attitude attribute civil code commit communicate concentrate confer contrast cycle debate despite dimension domestic emerge error ethnic grant hence hypothesis implement implicate impose integrate internal investigate mechanism occupy output overall parallel parameter phase predict prior principal professional project promote regime resolve retain series statistic status stress subsequent sum summary undertake
Academic Word List: Subset 5 academy adjust alter amend aware capacity challeng clause compound conflict consult contact decline discrete draft enable energy enforce entity equivalent evolve expand expose external facilitate fundamental generate generation image liberal license logic margin mental medical modify monitor network notion objective orient perspective precise prime psychology pursue ratio reject revenue stable style substitute sustain symbol target transit trend version welfare whereas Academic Word List: Subset 6 abstract acknowledge accuracy aggregate allocate assign attach bond brief capable cite cooperate discriminate display diverse domain edit enhance estate exceed explicit federal flexible furthermore gender ignorance interval lecture migrate minimum ministry motive neutral nevertheless overseas precede presume rational recover reveal scope subsidy trace transform transport underlie utilize
Academic Word List: Subset 7 adapt adult advocate aid channel chemical classic comprehensive comprise confirm contrary convert decade definite deny differentiate dispose dynamic equip eliminate empirical extract file finite foundation grade guarantee hierarchy identical ideology infer innovate insert intervene isolate media mode paradigm phenomenon priority prohibit publication release reverse simulate sole submit successor thesis topic transmit ultimate unique Academic Word List: Subset 8 abandon accompany accumulate ambiguous appendix appreciate arbitrary automate bias chart clarify commodity complement conform contemporary contradict crucial currency denote detect deviate displace eventual exhibit exploit fluctuate guideline highlight implicit induce inevitable infrastructure inspect intense manipulate minimize nuclear offset paragraph practitioner predominant prospect radical random reinforce restore revise schedule tense terminate theme thereby uniform vehicle via virtual visual widespread
Academic Word List: Subset 9 accommodate analogy anticipate assure attain behalf cease coherent coincide commence compatible concurrent confine controversy converse device devote diminish distort duration erode ethic format inherent insight integral intermediate manual mature mediate medium military minimal mutual norm overlap passive portion preliminary protocol qualitative refine restrain revolution rigid scenario sphere subordinate supplement suspend temporary trigger unify violate vision Academic Word List: Subset 10 adjacent albeit assemble collapse colleague compile conceive convince depress encounter forthcoming incline integrity intrinsic invoke levy likewise nonetheless notwithstanding ongoing panel persist pose reluctance so-called straightforward undergo whereas whereby
Open Field Academic Word List A Plan for School-wide Vocabulary Instruction EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION “Focus 40” words from the Academic Word List selected by grade level teachers: 1 word per week 2-3 words related to or associated with each of the “Focus 40”; each subject area teacher decides on related words “ Subject-specific words, such as those found in a glossary Students have more opportunities to read for a variety of purposes, including self-selected material. Elevated language used in class by teachers; students given motive and opportunity to use elevated vocabulary in speech and writing. IMPLICIT INSTRUCTION
Vocabulary Concordance Subset 1 of two- thirds Latin-based and one third Arabic-based words. 1. Spanish consists of roughly half Spanish and half French words.. 2. Catalan consists 3. consistent in your daily practice. To learn to play a musical instrument, you must be 4. consists Jazz of African elements. 5. The U.S. government consists of three branches: legislative, judicial, executive. 6. consists The Supreme Court of nine Justices. 7. Cake batter should have a smooth consistency before you bake it.
Vocabulary Concordance Subset 1 of life on other planets is intriguing. 1. The concept 2. Conception begins with the union of two cells. 3. concept to learn, at first. Quantum physics can be a difficult 4. conceptualize a world of justice and opportunity. Idealists 5. concept of the Pythagorean theorem is still used today.. The 6. speaking, Einstein’s Theory of Relativity could some day help us time travel. Conceptually 7. He was unable to grasp the concept of derivatives in math.
Academic Vocabulary Concordance Subset 2 the teacher’s attitude as rude and therefore unprofessional. The class 1. perceived The student’s unwillingness to comply with directives led the teacher to 2. perceive that she might .need alternative methods of instruction. 3. perception of the viewer. The angle of a plane can depend on the 4. perceptions and observations of the scientist must be objective. The a potential problem because of the river’s current, the captain changed course. 5. Perceiving 6. of its role in the people’s lives is the basis of its philosophy. perception The government’s 7. I perceive a problem with the safety rules not being properly posted.
Vocabulary Concordance Subset 5 1. folding is essential. When doing origami precise measurements are required for figuring out the dimensions of the angle. precise 2. The 3. precision tools require high maintenance. 4. precise Synthetic diamonds require cutting. 5. The Boeing 787 is the result of precise engineering. 6. The owner’s manual illustrates precisely how to assemble the bicycle. 7. precise geographic locations. GPS satellites afford
Subset 2 Consequence It occurs later. It happens as a result. An event’s effect.
Subset 6 Incorporate Bring into the mix— Creating a new oneness— Integrate the parts.
Subset 4 Implement Employ and apply Put to immediate use. Get the plan to work.
Morphology Chart It’s easier to understand parts of speech than you think. Simply use the cues above. Not all words follow the same morphology. It’s interesting to see how words morph into different forms.