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HUMAN BEGINNINGS

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  1. HUMAN BEGINNINGS AFRICA

  2. Chapter 1 – section 1 • Prehistory – before the written word (5500 years ago) • First human like creatures – 4.4 million years ago in Africa • Hominids – human beings and human like creatures • Anthropology – scientific study of hominids • Paleontologists- study fossils • Archeologists – unearth and interpret opjects (artifacts)

  3. Dating and Findings • Radiocarbon dating – technique to determine age • All once living things have radio carbon and it decays at a known rate • DNA has advanced the dating process • Gen Suwa found the oldest teeth at a site -Tim D. White (Aramis) – in Ethiopia Africa 4.4 million years old

  4. Lucy • 45 miles north at Hadar – Donald Johanson – discovered 3.2 million year old skeleton “Lucy”. • Later found males and females were different size, walked upright and climbed in trees • Found skull 4 million years old • Australopithecus - First humans – • walked on 2 legs, had had large faces that jutted out, small brains, flat noses and large teeth Lived in Africa – nomadic Homo – means human, named all humans after this point

  5. Hominid Groups • Scientists divided Homo – humans – into 3 groups • Homo habilis “person with ability” – earliest –lived up to 1.5 million years ago • Homo erectus “person who walks upright” – 100,000 tp 200,000 years ago • Homo sapiens – “person who thinks” today

  6. Ice Ages • Between 2 million and 10,000 years ago -4 long periods of cold • Only the middle lat. Could support human life • Oceans dropped 300 feet • Fire and clothing became essential for survival • Human Culture – way of life (language, religion, tools, etc.) • Use of tools • Technology – the skills and knowledge to survive

  7. The Stone Age • Period before writing • 3 periods of time • 1. Paleolithic – oldest 2.5 million years ago • 2. Mesolithic – middle stone age (12,000 BC to 8000 BC) • 3. Neolithic - 8000 BC to 5000 BC

  8. Paleolithic Hunter Gatherers • Homo Habilis – 1stQrt. Of Paleolithic period • Oldest to manufacture tools • Larger brains • Louis and Mary Leak – much research done by this pair at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania • Homo Erectus – gatherers until 500,000 years ago • they became hunters (males) • Fire – huge discovery • Clothing - animal skins • Migrations – Homo erectus might have been the first to migrate to Europe and Asia • Language – gestures and grunts until about 50,000 years ago • Important to pass down their stories

  9. Chapter 1 –section 2 (Homo Sapiens) • 200,000 years ago • Neanderthals – 1st • Named after Neander Valley in Germany • Stood 5.5 feet tall, larger brains than modern humans, stocky thick boned • More advanced tools – spears • Lived in 35 to 50 person groups • Nomadic cave dwellers • May have been the 1st to practice medicine, and life after death

  10. Homo Sapien Sapiens • Modern humans – dominated the continent 30,000 years ago • Cro-Magnons – earliest Sapien Sapiens • Taller but less robust • Better technology – stone axes, rafts, spears, bow and arrow • Law and order to hunt together – moved from caves to permanent homes • Cave painting – Lascaux and Vallon Pont-d’arc – both in France • Identify prey? or Religion?

  11. Neolithic Revolution • 5000 years ago people started to produce food –Agriculture, domesticating animals- tame for human purpose • Middle East – earliest agriculture – 3000 years before America or China