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Ch. 1 The Beginnings of Human Society. Section 1: Geography and History. Drill. P. 5 Map Master Activity Identify and Infer Questions. Objectives. Learn what tools are used to understand history Find out about the connections between geography & history. Discussion. Archaeologist

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ch 1 the beginnings of human society

Ch. 1 The Beginnings of Human Society

Section 1: Geography and History

  • P. 5 Map Master Activity
    • Identify and Infer Questions

Learn what tools are used to understand history

Find out about the connections between geography & history

  • Archaeologist
    • How is an archaeologist like a detective?
understanding history
Understanding History
  • Before & After Writing
    • Prehistory is the period of time before writing was invented
      • Peoples in SW Asia & Africa developed a system of writing 5,000 years ago
        • History is the written and other recorded events of people
  • Prehistory: Digging up the Past
    • Archaeologists (scientists who examine objects to learn about past peoples & cultures)
      • These objects tell them something about the people who lived there
        • They must piece together clues to find out what happened
understanding history1
Understanding History
  • History: A Record in Writing
    • Historians study written records of human life & accomplishments to understand a society
      • Also look at what other societies wrote about that society
  • A Record of the Spoken Word
    • Written records often begin as oral traditions (stories passed down by word of mouth)
      • Important because they tell how a society lived & what the people considered important, but not necessarily historically accurate
        • Facts mixed with personal beliefs & exaggerations
linking geography history
Linking Geography & History
  • Help us understand why historic events took place
    • Weather patters, water supply, land all affects the lives of people who live there
      • Egypt
        • Built on the banks of the Nile
          • Rich soil to grow surplus crops
            • Allowed people to perform other jobs that helped develop the civilization
              • Without Nile & regular flooding, Egyptian civilization would not have been successful or even lasted at all
reading check
Reading Check
  • Complete Section 1 Reading Check in composition book
    • Label
    • Complete sentences

Scientists believe he lived 5,000 years ago in about 3,000 B.C.

section 2 prehistory
Section 2: Prehistory
  • Drill
    • P. 9 #1a & 2b
  • Objectives
    • Discover how hunter-gatherers lived during the Stone Age
    • Learn about the beginning of farming
stone age hunting gathering
Stone Age Hunting & Gathering
  • Earliest Human Culture
    • Stone Age: a period of time during which early humans made lasting tools & weapons mainly from stone
      • Continued for hundreds of thousands of years
      • Divided into 2 periods:
        • Old
          • No farming
          • Almost all of human prehistory
        • Middle
        • New
  • No one knows for sure how they learned to use fire
  • 1,400,000-500,000 years ago
  • First learned how to keep fire going & then how to create it
    • Important step
      • Allowed them to move to areas with colder climates
settling new areas
Settling New Areas
  • As they developed tools began leaving Africa (one million years ago)
  • Many in Old Stone Age were nomads (people who have no settled home)
  • Over time stretched across globe, eventually reaching Peru in South America about 10,000 B.C.
    • (short DVD clip)
the beginning of farming
The Beginning of Farming
  • Old Stone Age
    • No farming
  • Middle Stone Age
    • Used more refined (advanced) tools
  • New Stone Age
    • Began to farm
    • Not all areas of the world entered each stage at the same time
early farmers
Early Farmers
  • 11,000 years ago in SW Asia New Stone Age begins when people learned if they planted seeds new crops would grow
    • No longer had to be nomads, but still depended on stone tools
    • Some were pastoral nomads (raised livestock & traveled in search of grazing areas for their animals)
    • Women were responsible for gathering plants & seeds
    • Men still hunted
farming around the world
Farming Around the World
  • Some places were better for farming than others
    • Fertile soil
    • Water for plants
    • Length of growing seasons
      • People learned this over time
plant selection
Plant Selection
  • Early plants look different from the same plants today
  • Early farmers choose seeds from the biggest, best-tasting plants
    • Domesticate plants (adapt wild plants for human use)
      • Early corn was only about the size of your pinky
raising animals
Raising Animals
  • New Stone Age
    • Humans learned to tame wild animals & breed them for human use
      • First domesticated animals may have been dogs
        • Helped with hunting
        • Also domesticated sheep, goats, pigs
          • Ready source of meat, milk, wool
            • Eventually camels, horses & donkeys to carry heavy loads
challenges of domestication
Challenges of Domestication
  • Human have tried to domesticate many species, but have failed with some
    • Cheetahs (hunting)
    • Wild elephants (for use in battle)
      • Hard to breed in captivity
      • Only a few species of large animals have been suitable to use in agriculture or transportation
section 3 the beginnings of civilization
Section 3: The Beginnings of Civilization
  • Drill
    • P. 17 #1a, 2a, 2c
  • Objectives
    • Find out about the advantages people gained from settling down in one place
    • Learn about the growth of early cities
    • Understand how the first civilizations formed & spread
advantages of a settled life
Advantages of a Settled Life
  • Farming was harder work, but greater rewards
  • Sometimes needed to build a system of irrigation (supplying land with water from another place using a network of canals)
    • Steady supply of food year round
      • Surplus (more than what is needed)
        • Enables people to have larger families & population grows (Graph p. 21)
        • Enabled people to do other things besides farm
          • Artisans (worker who is especially skilled in crafting items by hand)
            • Baskets, tools, pottery, cloth
      • No longer had to travel from place to place
growth of cities
Growth of Cities
  • Likely to develop where fertile soil created surpluses of food
  • People also needed a dependable water source & materials to build shelter
  • Earliest cities grew up along large rivers
    • Nile
    • Tigris
    • Euphrates
    • Huang
    • Indus
earliest cities
Earliest Cities
  • Larger than farming villages
  • People had a variety of occupations
  • Had large public buildings
    • Stored surplus grains
    • Places to worship gods
    • Places to buy & sell goods
      • As cities grew gov’t formed to keep order, provide services, settle disputes & manage public buildings & irrigation projects
        • (Short DVD clip)
first civilizations
First Civilizations
  • A civilization is a society that has cities, a central gov’t run by official leaders & workers who specialize in various jobs
    • Writing, art & architecture
bronze age
Bronze Age
  • Artisans learned to mix copper with tin to make bronze
    • May have made this discovery by accident
    • Marks the beginning of the Bronze Age
      • Harder than copper so it made items more durable
        • Used to make weapons, tools, helmets, shields
trade the spread of ideas
Trade & the Spread of Ideas
  • Traders took valuable items to faraway cities
  • Traded over water too
    • Allowed different cultures to come into contact with each other
      • Goods & ideas began to spread
      • Brought new prosperity to cities
        • Social Classes (next slide)
  • Wheel & axle
    • Allowed goods to be loaded on carts & pushed through the city to market
    • More goods could be transported farther & more easily
social classes develop
Social Classes Develop
  • Social Class is a group of people having similar backgrounds, incomes and ways of living
    • King most powerful
    • Priests & nobles (gov’t officials & military officers)
    • Artisans, small traders & merchants
    • Common workers & farmers
      • Lowest ranked free members of society
    • Slaves
      • People owned as property working as laborers & servants
  • Pages 25-27
  • Everyone completes:
    • P. 25 #1-6
    • P. 26 Map Master #1-6
    • P. 27 #1-4
    • I will assign each of you another question that will also need to be completed.