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Group (family / column). The Periodic Table. Period (row). Review. Period Row of elements. All elements in a period share the same number of energy shells . Group A column of elements.

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The Periodic Table


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review
Review
  • Period
    • Row of elements.
    • All elements in a period share the same number of energy shells.
  • Group
    • A column of elements.
    • All elements in a group share the same number of valence electrons. They also share characteristics
      • What is Group 1’s family name?
      • What chemical property do they all share?
classes of elements in the periodic table
Classes of Elements in the Periodic Table

metal

Non metal

  • Most elements are classified as either a ______________ or a _____ ___________.
  • Where are these two types generally found?
  • Why is an elements group or position important?
  • The position of an element, relative to other elements in the periodic table, provides a way to predict the physical and chemical properties of the element.
review basic trends in the periodic table
REVIEW Basic Trends in the Periodic Table
  • As you look across a period or down a group, several properties of elements change in a regular way.
    • Elements are organized by…
    • Every period has…
    • Every group or family has…
higher level trends reactivity and atom size
Higher level trendsReactivity and Atom Size

ALL Periodic Table Trends are Influenced by three main factors:

discuss in groups which two families are most reactive why might they be so reactive
Discuss in groups

Which two families are most reactive?

Why might they be so reactive?

Why are some elements more/less reactive than other elements? Explain
slide9
# of Valence Electrons
    • Degree to which the valence shell is full or stable
    •  Think Full House is happy
  • Energy Level
    • Higher energy levels are further away from the nucleus.
    •  Think Distance
  • Charge on nucleus (# protons)
    • More charge pulls electrons in closer.
    • (+ and – attract each other).
    •  Think Greater Electromagnetic force
what do they influence
What do they influence?
  • Energy levels have an effect on the GROUP ( FAMILY )
  • Nuclear charge has an effect on a PERIOD
1 reactivity and the outermost electrons
1) Reactivity and the Outermost Electrons
  • Many of the properties of elements are determined by the ________________ of the ______________ in the ________________ occupied energy level.
    • REVIEW: The electrons in the outermost occupied energy level of an atom are called _______ __________.

electrons

arrangement

outermost

Valenceelectrons

1 reactivity and the outermost electrons1
1) Reactivity and the Outermost Electrons

Family or Group

  • Atoms within the same _______________ in the periodic table have the same number of ________________ in their outer energy level.
  • Therefore, elements in a __________ (vertical column or stack) tend to react in a ______________ way.

electrons

group

similar

2 reactivity and atom size
2.) Reactivity and Atom Size

outermost

nucleus

  • The distance from the centre of the _______________ to the _______________ ________________ determines the _______ of an atom.
  • Atoms that need to _______ 1 electron or loose _ electron are _______ reactive.
      • Which two families are most reactive? Why?

electrons

size

gain

1

most

atomic size
Atomic Size

}

Atomic Radius

  • this is half the distance between the two nuclei of a diatomic molecule

or

  • the distance from the nuclei to the valence shell

Radius

atomic size group trends
Atomic Size - Group trends

H

  • As we increase the atomic number (or go down a group). . .
  • each atom has another energy level,
  • so the atoms get bigger.

Li

Na

K

Rb

slide16

down

farther

  • As you move ________ a group (family - column), there are more shells or energy levels, so the valence electrons are ___________ from the nucleus, and the atom is therefore _________ in size.
  • The farther the valence electron is from the nucleus in metals, the ___________ it is lost, and therefore is _______ reactive.
  • This is because of the electromagnetic attraction with the positive nucleus being smaller

larger

easier

more

slide18

Remember the Electron has a NEG. charge (-) and the nucleus has a POS. (+) charge.

  • The greater the distance btw the – and the + regions, the weaker the nucleus’ (+) hold of the electron (-) is.
  • REVIEW: As you move across a period (row) to the _________, atoms gain an additional electron.

right

atomic size period trends
Atomic Size - Period Trends
  • Going from left to right across a period, the size getssmaller.
  • Electrons are in the same energy level.
  • But, there is more nuclear charge (# of protons)
  • Outermost electrons are pulled closer.

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

slide22

“Halogens”

  • _____________ or group 17 elements are diatomic, meaning they are found in pairs.
  • The positive nucleus repel one another, so the closer the nucleus are to one another the easier it is to separate them (so that they can form an ionic bond).
  • The easier they separate the more ____________ they are. As you move down the group the distance between nucleus’s increases and additional shells form in-between them, helping to shield the nucleus from one another and decreasing how much they repel one another (making it harder to break them apart).

reactive

isotopes
Isotopes
  • Even though atoms may not be identical (remember: atomic mass was an average of all the variations),they are both atoms of the same ____________ if they have the same number of ____________.
  • Isotope: one of two or more forms of an element that have the _______ number of __________ but a __________ number of _____________.
    • “An element whose atomic mass has changed.”

element

protons

same

protons

neutrons

different

atomic mass and isotopes
Atomic Mass and Isotopes
  • While most atoms have the same number of protons and neutrons (or close to), some don’t.
    • Some atoms have more or less neutrons than protons. These are called isotopes.
  • An atomic mass number with a decimal is the total of the number of protons plus the average number of neutrons.