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Written Communication - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Written Communication. Objective: to design, construct and implement written communication that facilitates understanding and results in action taken Written communication is the end product of careful research , planning , writing and editing

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written communication
Written Communication
  • Objective: to design, construct and implement written communication that facilitates understanding and results in action taken
  • Written communication is the end product of careful research, planning, writing and editing
  • Effective writing is clear, coherent, concise and accurate
effective writing
Effective Writing
  • Clarity - simplicity, familiarity and visibility
  • Accuracy- specificity, precision exactness, close observation, using words to convey exactly what we think or have observed
  • Conciseness - brevity and succinctness
  • Coherence - the shape and structure of your writing is consistent, logical
process of writing
Process of Writing
  • identify purpose
  • audience reception
  • information requirements - research
  • planning
  • sort information
  • arrange information in sequence
ordering information
Ordering Information
  • direct/ inductive/ pyramid - starts with main point then provides the detailed evidence analysis discussion. Identifies information chronologically, summarises the issue in the beginning
  • indirect/ deductive/ inverted pyramid - starts with the conclusion, end result or outcome, then provides the accompanying evidence and concludes with the main point. Identifies the result first
  • problem-solving - focus the reader on the problem, then provides a detailed discussion of the contributing factors and conclude with the solution
  • traditional written outline - creates a list of the important points/main ideas and their supporting evidence, provides the headings and sub-headings for the final piece of writing
  • tree diagram - orders ideas in logical groups rather than organising the document, suited to complex ideas and information
  • triangle - emphasises the lead-in or introduction to the topic and the conclusion
  • mind map - a visual representation with the main point as the focus with key concepts arising from the main idea
writing techniques
Writing Techniques
  • Signalling devices - headings, topic sentences
  • Linking phrases - logical bridges, repetition or keynoting, substituting pronouns for nouns, phrases to link paragraphs
  • Transitional expressions/words - help to make connections between ideas
non verbal communication
Non-verbal communication
  • body language
  • use of space
  • non-linguistic features of speech
  • as interference
  • as a separate channel
body language
body language
  • body movement

cultural emblems, illustrators, affects

touching, nodding, facial expression

  • physical characteristics

disability, posture, perfume, clothing

  • immediate
  • intrusive
use of space
use of space
  • physicality – use of height and weight
  • personal space – cultural considerations, gender considerations
  • environment – lighting, orientation, posture
  • time - punctuality
non linguistic speech
non-linguistic speech
  • meaning of words often dependent on how we say something
  • voice quality
  • rhythm
  • pitch
  • patterns of speech and silence
problems with non verbal communication
problems with non-verbal communication
  • there is no dictionary
  • what we are looking for is often what we see – good or bad
  • often it seems to contradict what is being said


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