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## AP Chemistry Final Exam Review

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**Chapter 1**Matter and Measurements**Important Terms**• Atom • Element • Law Of Definite Proportions**Mixture**• Solution • Physical Properties • Chemical Properties**Intensive Property**• Extensive Property • SI units**Precision**• Accuracy • Significant figures • Dimensional Analysis**Equations**• Density = m/v • K = oC + 273**Things You Should Be Able To Do**• Solve simple problems using dimensional analysis. • Convert between Celsius and Kelvin**Chapter 2**Atoms, Molecules, and Ions**Important Terms**• Nucleus • Proton, Neutron, Electron • Atomic Mass Unit**Isotope**• Group • Period • Metal, nonmetal, metalloid**Molecule**• Compound • Empirical Formula • Molecular Formula**Ion**• Ionic Compound • Polyatomic Ion**Equations**• None**Things You Should Be Able To Do**• Calculate number of subatomic particles in an atom based on basic information about AMU’s and the type of element the atom is. • Work with empirical and molecular formulas. • Name ionic compounds. • Determine the formula of an ionic compound when given the name.**Example Problems**• 20, 22, 47, 53, 69**Chapters 3 and 4**Stoichiometry**Important Words**• Chemical Equation • Reactants • Products**Formula Weight**• Mole • Molar Mass • Limiting Reactant**Theoretical Yield**• Percent Yield • Aqueous solution • Sovlent**Solute**• Electrolyte • nonelectrolyte • Strong and weak electrolyte**Precipitation Reaction**• Molecular Equation • Complete Ionic Equation • Net Ionic Equation**Acid**• Base • Neutralization Reaction • Oxidation • Oxidation state**Reduction**• Concentration • Titration • Equivalence Point**Equations**• Molarity = moles/L • M1V1 = M2V2**Things You Should Be Able To Do**• Balance Equations • Calculate Molar Masses • Convert between moles and mass • Convert between Mass, moles, and number of particles. • Determine percent composition • Determine empirical and molecular formulas from percent composition data. • Calculate percent yeild**Example Problems**• 1, 8, 9, 19, 21, 25, 41, 44, 63, 68, 74**Chapter 5 and 19**Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry**Important Terms**• Thermodynamics • Thermochemistry • Kinetic Energy**Potential Energy**• Joule • Calorie • System**Surroundings**• Heat • First Law Of Thermodynamics • Endothermic**Exothermic**• Enthalpy • Calorimetry • Heat Capacity**Molar Heat Capacity**• Specific Heat • Hess’s Law • Enthalpy Of Formation**Standard Enthalpy of Reaction**• Standard Enthalpy of Formation • Spontaneous • Isothermal**Second Law Of Thermodynamics**• Third Law Of Thermodynamics • Gibbs Free Energy • Standard Free Energy of Formation**Equations**• q = C xmx ΔT • ΔHorxn = sum(nΔHof products) – sum(ΔHof reactants) • Δso = sum(nΔS products) – sum(nΔS reactants) • ΔG = ΔH - TΔS • ΔGorxn = sum(nΔGof products) – sum(ΔGof reactants) • ΔG = ΔGo + RT lnQ • ΔGo =- RT lnk**Things You Should Be Able To Do**• Understand the mathematical signs associated with thermodynamics. • Use Hess’s law to determine the heat energy transfer during a chemical reaction. • Calculate the heat transferred in a process using calorimetry. • Use standard enthalpies of formation to determine the standard enthalpy of a reaction. • Qualitatively describe entropy and entropy changes.**Calculate the standard entropy change for a process using**standard molar entropies. • Calculate gibbs free energy from the enthalpy and entropy changes at a given temperature. • Predict the effect of temperature on spontaneity given ΔH and ΔS. • Calculate ΔG under nonstandard conditions. • Relate Δgo and equilibrium constants.**Example Problems**• 29, 37, 46, 52,**Chapter 6**Electronic Structure Of Matter**Important Terms**• Electron Configuration • Ground State • Excited State • Pauli exclusion principle**Hunds Rule**• Valance Electrons**Equations**• None**Things You Should Be Able To Do**• Be able to interpret electron energy level diagrams. • Be able to write electron configurations.**Example Problems**• 23**Chapter 7**Periodic Properties Of The Elements**Important Terms**• Effective Nuclear Charge • Atomic Radius • Isoelectronic**Ionization Energy**• Electron Affinity • Metallic Character**Equations**• None**What You Should Be Able To Do**• Understand how effective nuclear charge affects first ionization energy. • Use the periodic table to predict atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, and electron affinity. • Understand how the ionization energy changes as we remove successive electrons.