Harry Harlow Experiment • The young monkeys for the most part ignored the wire mother, even if she had food. • They became strongly attached to the cloth mother, whether she gave food or not. • The touching mattered, not the feeding. Harlow called this contact comfort or tactile touch. • Attachment goes beyond nourishment
Social desirability bias • A term used in scientific research to describe the tendency of respondents to reply in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. This will generally take the form of over reporting good behavior or underreporting bad behavior.
Amygdala [ah-MIG-dah-la] • two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion • Damage may cause an inability to detect the emotional significance of facial expressions, especially expression of fear.
The Lobes of the Brain • The cerebrum is two hemispheres connected by a band of fibers called the corpus callosum • Divided into lobes • Occipital- vision • Parietal- senses from all over the body • Temporal- hearing, memory, speaking • Frontal- creative thinking, planning
Homeostasis- Our body’s tendency to maintain a balanced state to survive • Belief perseverance-- clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited • Stereotype threat--fear that one's behavior will confirm an existing stereotype of a group with which one identifies
Permissive parenting– children are allowed to do what they wish; no clear rules are enforced • Dissociation--conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Dissociative disorder--a disorder in which a person experiences alterations in memory, identity, or consciousness • Dissociative amnesia--the inability to recall important personal events or information; usually associated with stressful events • Dissociative fugue--a dissociative disorder in which a person suddenly and unexpectedly travels away from home or work and is unable to recall the past • Dissociative identity disorder--a person exhibits two or more personality states, each with its own patterns of thinking and behaving
Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Fear (emotion) Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion • To experience emotion one must: • be physically aroused • cognitively label the arousal
Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) • stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response • Unconditioned Response(UCR) • unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus • salivation when food is in the mouth • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) • originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response • Conditioned Response (CR) • learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
Anxiety Disorders-- • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder-- uncontrollable pattern of thoughts is called obsession; repeatedly performing irrational actions, which is called a compulsion. • Post-traumatic stress disorder-- victims of traumatic events experience the original event in the form of dreams or flashbacks • Phobias– intense, irrational fear of objects, places, or even people
Predictive validity: Predicts a known association between the construct you’re measuring and something else. • Construct Validity —The extent to which an assessment corresponds to other variables, as predicted by some rationale or theory hypochondriasis, in which a person who is in good health becomes preoccupied with imaginary ailments.
Experimental Variables • Operational definition-- defines the exact manner in which a variable is measured-- a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables • To test a hypothesis, an experimenter defines the variables of the hypothesis: • Cause: Independent variable (IV) the one experimenters change or alter so they can observe its effects • Marijuana: Plain cigarette versus cigarette containing 5 mg of THC (the active ingredient in marijuana) • Effect: Dependent variable (DV) one that changes in relation to the independent variable. • Appetite: Grams of ice cream consumed in 1 hour • The experimenter manipulates the IV and measures the DV to test the hypothesis
diathesis-stress model • Theory that explains behavior as both a result of biological and genetic factors ("nature"), and life experiences ("nurture").Diathesis is the heriditary predispostion to a disorder (from the Greek diathesis=arrangement, from dia=asunder+tithenai=to place).Stress is the environmental load put on the organism. • This theory is often used to describe the pronunciation of mental disorders, like schizophrenia, that are produced by the interaction of a vulnerable hereditary predisposition, with precipitating events in the environment. This theory was originally introduced as a means to explain some of the underlying causes of schizophrenia (Zubin & Spring, 1977). • In the diathesis-stress model, a genetic vulnerability or predisposition (diathesis) interacts with the environment and life events (stressors) to trigger behaviours or psychological disorders. The greater the underlying vulnerability, the less stress is needed to trigger the behaviour/disorder. Conversely, where there is a smaller genetic contribution greater life stress is required to produce the particular result. Even so, someone with a diathesis towards a disorder does not necessarily mean they will ever develop the disorder. Both the diathesis and the stress are required for this to happen.
Negative Reinforcement-- Occurs when an aversive stimulus is prevented or eliminated following a behavior. Makes behavior more likely to recur. • Debriefing- researcher explains the study to participants after they are finished. It can reduce problems associated with the use of deception in research.
Cognitive Approach • This perspective studies the way humans store and process information; eg: might assess locus of control • Study the way a person thinks – is it negative, irrational, faulty, distorted, self-defeating, unrealistic • Treatment– rational-emotive therapy, Beck’s cognitive therapy, changing ways of thinking
Behaviorism • People– Skinner, Pavlov, Watson • Operant conditioning, classical conditioning, observational learning • Reinforcement, CR, CS, shaping, modeling • Treatments– systematic desensitization, extinction, modeling, counter conditioning, aversion therapy, biofeedback training, stress inoculation
Psychoanalytical • Freud, Jung, Adler, • Repression, suppression, unconscious motives, • Freud: Stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, & genital): personality structure-- id, ego, superego– dreams= wish fulfillment • Treatments– free association, dream analysis, hypnosis, insight therapy, interpretation of resistance/transference
Biological • Chemical & endocrine imbalances, genetic & hereditary, brain damage, • Drug treatments, exercise, nutrition
The Humanistic Approach Key features (2): • People strive for ‘actualization’ • Rogers: the self-concept consists of a perceived self and an ideal self. Psychological health is achieved when the two match • Maslow: people have a hierarchy of needs. The goal of psychological growth is to meet the need to achieve self-actualisation
Fundamental Attribution Error • tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years • Object permanence • Stranger anxiety Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) About 2 to 6 years • Pretend play • Egocentrism • Language development Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning About 7 to 11 years • Conservation • Mathematical transformations Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations About 12 through adulthood • Abstract logic • Potential for moral reasoning Formal operational Abstract reasoning Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Drive-Reduction Theory • the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need • Social Facilitation • improved performance of tasks in the presence of others • occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
Overjustification Effect • the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do • the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
Personality disorders • Dependent Personality disorder– lack self confidence, cannot express difference of opinion with others, lets others make decisions for them. They have no true identity • Narcissistic personality disorder– inflated sense of their own importance and a deep need for admiration. They believe that they’re superior to others and have little regard for other’s feelings. But behind this mask of ultra-confidence lies a fragile self-esteem, vulnerable to the slightest criticism.
Brain Scans • CT (computed tomography) Scan • a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body; also called CAT scan • PET (positron emission tomography) Scan • a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) • a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain • Electroencephalogram (EEG) -- an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface • these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
Measures of Variance • Provide an index of how spread out scores of a distribution are. • Range= subtract the lowest score from the highest score. • Standard Deviation is a measure of distance. The larger the standard deviation, the more spread out the scores are. http://www.childrensmercy.org/stats/definitions/stdev.htm
Paul Ekman • Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally determined, but universal across human cultures and thus biological in origin • He developed the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) to taxonomize every human facial expression • Display rules-- Socialization establishes when it is appropriate to display a given facial expression in a given society and when it is not, thus causing individuals to actively modulate the display of emotions and other states. Ekman and Friesen coined the term display rules to describe such socially engendered forces that alter facial expression.
Hypothetical thinking-- involves the imagination of possibilities and the exploration of their consequences by a process of mental simulation. In development, it is acquired last.
Personality Inventory • a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors • used to assess selected personality traits
Hallucinations • sensory experiences without sensory stimulation
EX 2: Case Studies or Case Histories • In depth studies of one or a few people • Often used to investigate rare or unusual conditions • EX: Studying multiple births (triplets or quadruplets, only so many) • Data is gathered using observation methods, interviews, and psychological testing • This is the primary type of research that Freud used • Disadvantage = results may not generalize beyond the people being studied or to other cultures
2. Correlational research Determines the relationship or correlation between two characteristics, events, or behaviors Important: Does not prove that one thing causes another, just proves there is a relationship Almost any two things or behaviors can be tested and proven related in some way Correlational Study may determine 3 things: • 1. There is no relationship (very rare) • 2. Positive relationship • As one behavior increases, the other increases *None of these things causes the other, but they are related • 3. Negative relationship • As one behavior increases, the other decreases *Again just because you are in sports doesn’t mean you don’t do drugs, but there is a relationship Correlation Coefficient • Measures relationships, ranges from –1 to 1 • -1 is a strong negative correlation • +1 indicates a strong positive correlation • EX: -.86 (strong negative relationship) • EX: .01 (very little relationship) • EX: .94 (very strong positive relationship)
3. Experimental research methods Goals is to find facts and causes of things, Variables (properties or characteristics of some event, object or person that can take on different values or amounts • Experiments manipulate variables • Qualitative or Quantitative? • 1. Qualitative variables (quality can be measured, but not with numbers) • 2. Quantitative variables (can measure quantity with numbers or stats) A. Discrete or Continuous? Discrete variables (have possible scores of discrete points on a scale) B.Continuous variables (have a continuous scale) C. Independent Variable Variable that is manipulated by an experimenter Produces change in the experiment Variable that you use to make predictions D. Dependent Variable Variable that you are trying to predict Factor observed and measured for a change, DV depends on changes in the independent variable Usually a test or measurement taken at the end of the experiment In most experiments, there are 2 Groups: • 1. Experimental group (exposed to the IV, group that played the violent game) • 2. Control group (not exposed to the IV, group that played the non violent game, used as a comparison)
Cross sectional research– studying groups of people at various age levels; advantage– takes less time. • Longitudinal research– studying a group of people intermittently at varying times (every 5 years).
Pain • Gate-Control Theory • theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain • “gate” opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers • “gate” closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain
Social Relations • Mirror image perceptions– how we see “them” they see “us” • Self-serving bias– a readiness to perceive oneself favorably. Accept credit for good deeds and shuck blame for bad deeds.
General Intelligence(g) • factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities • measured by every task on an intelligence test • Factor Analysis • statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test • used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score
Freud’s Elements of the Personality ID • Unconscious energy • Basic drives • Sexual and aggressive instincts • Immediate gratification • Pleasure Principle • Instinctual/biological • Libidinal Energy
Elements of the Personality EGO • Partially conscious • Cope with real world • Gratifies ID in realistic ways • Reality Principle • Logical/Rational • Struggles to reconcile ID & Superego
Elements of the Personality SUPEREGO • Partially conscious • Ideal behavior • Moral Principle • Conscience
Ego Conscious mind Unconscious mind Superego Id Personality Structure • Freud’s idea of the mind’s structure
Assessing the Unconscious • Rorschach Inkblot Test • the most widely used projective test • a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach • seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Social Influence • Group Polarization • enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group • Can increase prejudice, internet new medium • Good for self-help group situations • Groupthink • mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives • Fed by overconfidence, conformity, self-justification, & group polarization.
Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation coming from within, not from external rewards; based on personal enjoyment of a task • Extrinsic Motivation: Based on obvious external rewards, obligations, or similar factors
Industrial and Organizational Psychologists– Industrial psychologists focus on people and work. Organizational psychologists study the behavior of people in organizations, such as business firms. Industrial psychology and organizational psychology are closely related. Psychologists in these fields are often trained in both areas. • Industrial and organizational psychologists are employed by business firms to improve working conditions and increase worker output. They may assist in hiring, training, and promoting employees. They may also devise psychological tests for job applicants and conduct research into the factors that contribute to job satisfaction. In addition, some industrial and organizational psychologists have counseling skills and help employees who have problems on the job.