What You’ll Learn 1. Explain the relationship between alcohol and other drugs and date rape. 2. Identify guidelines to follow to reduce the risk of date rape. 3. Discuss sexual abuse. 4. List steps to take if you are sexually harassed or stalked.
What You’ll Learn 5. Discuss the legal and ethical consequences of sexual assault, harassment, abuse, and rape. 6. Identify steps victims can take to better recover from sexual violence or abuse.
Key Terms • rape survivor • rape trauma syndrome • sexual assault • rape • date-rape drugs • sexual abuse • incest • sexual harassment • stalking • restraining order
Rape • Sexual assault is any type of unwanted sexual contact. • Rape is the threatened or actual use of physical force to get someone to have sex without giving consent. • Rape, verbal threats, grabbing, or fondling are forms of sexual assault.
What to Know About Rape • Rape • The majority of rape victims are female and the majority of rape perpetrators are male. • Anger and a need for power usually are the motivating factors in all forms of sexual assault and rape. • All forms of sexual assault and rape are forms of violence, and all are unethical and illegal.
What to Know About Rape • Acquaintance rape • The majority of rape cases involve a form of rape called acquaintance rape. • Acquaintance rape is when a person who is raped knows the rapist. • Date rape is when rape occurs in a dating situation.
What to Know About Rape • Facts about date rape • When a person says “no” to sexual advances, they mean “no.” • At all times, people must be consistent, say “no” clearly, and not encourage sexual advances. • If people put themselves in a risk situation, it can be difficult to defend themselves or to get help if sexual advances occur. • Forcing a person to have sex is rape.
What to Know About Rape • Laws concerning rape • According to the law, if a person does not willingly agree to have sex, there is no consent and it is considered rape. • The law states that people under a certain age and people who do not have certain mental abilities are considered unable to give consent, even if they agree to have sex.
What to Know About Rape • Laws concerning rape • Anyone under the influence of alcohol or other drugs cannot give legal consent to have sex. • Having sex with someone who has been drinking or using drugs can be considered rape in a court of law, even if the person did not say “no.” • Drunkenness or being high on drugs is not considered a legal defense against rape.
What to Know About Rape How can you protect yourself against rape?
What to Know About Rape Alcohol and Other Drug Use • The use of alcohol and other drugs greatly increases the possibility that rape might occur. • Increased likelihood that you might be in a risk situation • If a female uses alcohol and/or drugs, she might make wrong decisions concerning her personal safety. • If a female is in a risk situation, it may be difficult for her to defend herself from sexual advances or rape.
What to Know About Rape Alcohol and Other Drug Use • Impaired judgment • If a male uses alcohol and/or drugs, he may ignore messages of nonconsent and force sex because his judgment is impaired. • Drunkenness or being high on drugs is not a defense against rape.
What to Know About Rape Alcohol and Other Drug Use • Intensified feelings and the need for control • A person who is a rapist often has an increased need to control a companion. • He or she also is more likely to act upon that need after using alcohol or other drugs. • Many rapes reportedly have happened after alcohol or other drug use has occurred.
What to Know About Rape Date-Rape Drugs • Date-rape drugs are drugs used to sedate and depress a person’s central nervous system, leaving him or her vulnerable to sexual assault. • Flunitrazepam, GHB, and ketamine are drugs that have been used as date-rape drugs. • A date-rape drug might be slipped into a person’s beverage without his or her knowledge.
What to Know About Rape How do date rape drugs make a person more vulnerable to sexual assault?
Sexual Abuse • Sexual abuse is maltreatment that involves any sexual contact that is forced on a person without his or her consent. • Sexual abuse can consist of a single incident of sexual contact, or it can consist of repeated incidents of sexual contact.
What to Know About Sexual Abuse • Sexual abuse • Sexual abuse behaviors can include rape, incest, or any type of sexual contact. • Exploitation of children can consist of promoting minors to engage in sex acts, using minors to produce pornography, or encouraging and promoting prostitution.
What to Know About Sexual Abuse • Incest • Incest is sexual abuse in which the abuser is a close relative of the victim. • Incest is the most common form of sexual abuse. • Incest is always wrong, and the perpetrator is always the one at fault. • Although victims might feel that they did something to cause the abuse, incest is never the fault of the victim.
What to Know About Sexual Abuse • Laws • All states have laws that prohibit sexual abuse and require teachers and health professionals to report suspected cases of abuse. • The identity of the person who is reporting the suspected abuse remains confidential. • If an investigation reveals that a child is in danger, that child will be placed in protective custody or in a foster home.
Sexual Harassment and Stalking • Sexual harassment is unwanted sexual behavior that ranges from making sexual comments to forcing another person into unwanted sexual acts. • Stalking is repeatedly engaging in harassing or threatening behavior, such as following or making harassing phone calls to a person.
What to Do if You Are Sexually Harassed or Stalked Sexual Harassment • Ask the person who is harassing you to stop. • Be direct about what behavior is bothering you as the person might interpret a lack of response as encouragement. • Keep a record of what happened. • Write down the date and time; describe the situation and behavior; explain how you handled the situation; and save any notes, letters, or pictures.
What to Do if You Are Sexually Harassed or Stalked Sexual Harassment • Check to see if there are guidelines to follow for the specific situation. • If the harassment occurred at school, check school guidelines. • If the harassment occurred at work, check work guidelines.
What to Do if You Are Sexually Harassed or Stalked Sexual Harassment • Report the harassment to the appropriate person in charge. • This person may be a boss, a teacher, or a school counselor. • Determine if you want to take legal action. • Sexual harassment is against all companies’ policies and also is a violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
What to Do if You Are Sexually Harassed or Stalked Stalking • Tell a trusted adult. • Tell your parents or guardian and school officials what is happening and avoid being alone as much as possible. • Keep a record of each case of stalking. • Write down the date, time, what was said, and what happened.
What to Do if You Are Sexually Harassed or Stalked Stalking • Save evidence. • Evidence would include notes and letters that might have beenwrittentoyou,andanswering- machine tapes with messages left on them. • Try to obtain a restraining order. • A restraining order is an order by a court that forbids a person from coming within a certain distance of the victim.
What to Do if You Are Sexually Harassed or Stalked Stalking • Contact the police department to report the stalking. • Consider pressing charges against the person who is stalking you. • Seek counseling. • Seek appropriate counseling or join a support group for victims of stalking.
What to Do if You Are Sexually Harassed or Stalked Sexual Harassment and Stalking Laws • Sexual harassment • Federal law strictly prohibits sexual harassment in school and in the workplace. • Many schools and places of employment train employees on how to prevent and deal with sexual harassment.
What to Do if You Are Sexually Harassed or Stalked Sexual Harassment and Stalking Laws • Stalking • Federal and state governments have passed anti-stalking laws that make stalking a felony offense with stiff penalties. • These laws provide more power to arrest and prosecute stalkers, and more protection to stalking victims.
Recovery from Violence • Survivors of sexual violence and abuse often experience feelings of anger, fear, shock, confusion, and depression.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors • The purpose of recovery programs is to help victims survive the pain, heal, and move forward with self-confidence. • A survivor will never forget what has happened, but with time and effort, a survivor can accept the reality of what has happened and work through his or her feelings. • Recovery can be a powerful and positive step in the survivor’s life.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors • Talk about what happened. • It is important to share feelings, thoughts, and experiences. • Survivors need a support network of family members and trusted friends who can help them through the recovery process.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors • Get a complete medical examination. • Survivors of sexual violence and abuse need to get complete examinations and have physical injuries treated. • They might need blood tests to determine if they have become infected with sexually transmitted diseases and need to be tested for pregnancy.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors • Seek counseling. • Survivors may need counseling and support services for emotional trauma. • Join a support group. • There are support groups for survivors of sexual violence and abuse. • Survivors might ask school counselors or look in the local phone directory or newspaper to find support groups.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors • Practice self-defense strategies. • Survivors can gain confidence so that they can protect themselves from further harm. • They can learn about risk situations and how to avoid them. • They can learn and practice self-defense strategies.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors • Try to remain hopeful and optimistic about the future. • Survivors might not believe it right away, but the world is a wonderful place, and recovery and happiness are possible.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors Recovery Efforts for Rape Survivors • A rape survivor is a person who has been raped. • Rape survivors often need treatment for both physical injuries and emotional damage. • A rape survivor should not take a shower after a rape until a medical exam has been performed so health status can be determined and evidence collected.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors Recovery Efforts for Rape Survivors • Rape trauma syndrome • Rape trauma syndrome is a condition in which a rape survivor experiences emotional responses and physical symptoms over a period of time. • After a rape, survivors might feel ashamed, angry, afraid, guilty, and powerless.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors Recovery Efforts for Rape Survivors • Rape trauma syndrome • To avoid the lasting effects of rape trauma syndrome, survivors need treatment for both physical injuries and emotional damage. • Sometimes victims are examined by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs), who are trained to deal with emotional damage caused by rape, as well as physical injuries.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors Recovery Efforts for Rape Survivors • Resources • Rape crisis centers are available in many communities. • Hospitals and women’s centers also offer counseling and support groups. • Rape victims can call the National Sexual Assault Hotline at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673) for information.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors Recovery Efforts for Rape Survivors • Providing support for a rape victim • Give the victim time to feel comfortable with discussing the rape, but encourage the victim to share feelings and thoughts when he or she feels ready. • Try to be supportive, but not overly protective. • Encourage the victim to get help from a rape crisis center or a mental-health professional.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors Recovery Efforts for Rape Survivors • Advice for family members and friends • Family members and friends of people who are victims of sexual assault also are victims because the crime has affected their lives, too. • Family members might want to seek counseling to help them work through this difficult time.
What to Know About Recovery for Survivors Recovery for Perpetrators • Changing this behavior requires entering and completing a treatment program that offers help from mental-health professionals. • Treatment programs include relapse prevention, which helps individuals to identify thinking patterns that contribute to committing acts of sexual violence and to develop skills so that they do not return to a previous pattern of inappropriate behavior.
National Resources for Victims of Sexual Violence Name of Organization What the Organization Does Office for Victims of Crime Assists in victim recovery; provides information, statistics, and updates on victim issues Violence Against Women Office Provides information about violence against women;handles policy and legal issues regarding violence against women
National Resources for Victims of Sexual Violence Name of Organization What the Organization Does Sexual Assault Resource Service (SARS) Offers information for nursing professionals who provide sexual assault evaluations Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network (RAINN) Provides statistics, prevention tips, and counseling information
5C, 7A, 7J, 14B Study Guide 1. Identify the following statements as true or false. _______ Rape, verbal threats, grabbing, or fondling are forms of sexual assault. _______ A rape survivor should not take a shower after a rape until a medical exam has been performed. _______ The majority of rape cases involve a form of rape called sexual assault. _______ Drunkenness or being high on drugs is considered a legal defense against rape. true true false false
5C, 7A, 7J Study Guide 2. Identify two examples of date-rape drugs. Flunitrazepam, GHB, and ketamine are drugs that have been used as date-rape drugs.
5C, 7A, 7J Study Guide 3. What two things usually are considered the motivating factors for all forms of sexual assault and rape? In all forms of sexual assault and rape, anger and a need for power usually are the motivating factors.
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