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Chapter 25 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 25. Introduction to the Personal Computer (PC). Objectives. Define field replacement unit. Explain the function of BIOS. Describe the power-on self-test (POST). Describe how data is stored as magnetic media. Identify various types of computer ports.

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Chapter 25


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    1. Chapter 25 Introduction to the Personal Computer (PC)

    2. Objectives • Define field replacement unit. • Explain the function of BIOS. • Describe the power-on self-test (POST). • Describe how data is stored as magnetic media. • Identify various types of computer ports. • Identify various factors that affect processor speed. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    3. PC Introduction • Evolution of computers • Room-sized machines • Desktop machines • Palm-sized machines • Uses of computers • Science • Entertainment • Schools • Government Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    4. PC Repair • Formerly part of general electronics repair • Now its own area of repair • Hardware failure • Data recovery • Computer technology certifications Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    5. Common Points of Hardware Failure • Hard disk drives • Modems Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    6. Hard Disk Failure • Electronic and mechanical device • In constant use • Mechanical devices wear out faster • Viruses and worms attack hard disk drives Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    7. Modem Failure • Lightning strikes to telephone lines are most probable cause • Lightning strikes can affect modems even if the computer is turned off • Surge protectors with phone protection should always be used Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    8. Software- and User-Related Problems • Software compatibility issues, even when documented to work with a particular operating system (OS) • Users might unknowingly change options or settings and create problems with their PCs Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    9. PC Technicians • Formerly performed component-level repair • Now use field replacement units (FRUs) • Hard drives • Floppy drives • CD-ROMs • Digital video discs (DVDs) • Memory chips • Power supply • Motherboards Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    10. Data Recovery • Businesses specialize in recovering data from failed or damaged hard disk drives • Can still salvage data after drive mechanics have failed • Data can be recovered after hard disk drive controller board or drive motor is replaced Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    11. Computer Technology Certifications • CompTIA organization certifies technicians in non-vendor-specific computer maintenance and repair • A+ certification • Computer manufacturers require CompTIA certification by students or employees • Will become a common requirement in the future Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    12. The PC as a Tool • Resources have become commonplace through use of CD-ROMs and Internet sites • Adapter cards can be used to help simulate physical electronics laboratory equipment Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    13. Review What are the two most common points of hardware failure? The hard disk drive and the modem Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    14. Review What are all parts in a typical PC called in repair? Field replacement units (FRUs) Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    15. Review What must be replaced before data can be recovered? The hard disk drive controller board or drive motor Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    16. Review What is the not-for-profit organization that will certify a technician in computer technology? CompTIA Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    17. Major Computer Systems • Input devices • Output devices • Central processing units (CPUs) • Storage devices Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    18. Overall Design of PCs Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    19. Case Form factor Input devices Power supply Motherboard CPU Memory Basic input output system (BIOS) Chipsets Mass storage devices CD drives Modem PC Components Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    20. Cases • Three styles • Desktop • Tower • Mini-tower • Number of bays available for mounting devices • Internal bays • External bays Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    21. Form Factor • Three components have a form factor • Case • Motherboard • Power supply • Defines physical attributes of the item • Must match to be physically compatible with one another Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    22. Input Devices • Allow data entry to the computer • Controlled by program instructions • Input or output (I/O) channels • Also known as peripherals Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    23. Power Supply • Converts standard ac electrical energy into dc voltage levels • Provides power to many parts of the computer • ATX power supply connection • Memory aid: “black goes back-to-back” Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    24. Motherboard • Sophisticated electronic circuit board that provides communication among all major components Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    25. Motherboard Components • CPU • Memory • Expansion slots • Chipsets • BIOS • CMOS battery • Oscillator circuit Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    26. Motherboard Functions • Small circuit paths running in parallel and providing path for data, control signals, and power • Power supply connects only to low-wattage components of motherboard • Provides slots for expansion cards • Industrial Standard Architecture (ISA) • Peripheral Component Interface (PCI) Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    27. CPUs • Also called microprocessors • Handle all mathematical computations • Most expensive IC in computer • Contain millions of transistors and ICs that process information • Working frequency (GHz) is one factor in measuring CPU’s performance Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    28. CPUs (Cont.) • On-chip cache is a small amount of memory used to store data the CPU frequently accesses • Processing speed is increased • Use very high frequencies • Cooling technologies must be applied • Heat sinks • Fans Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    29. Types of Memory • Random access memory (RAM) • Contents constantly change • Multitasking • Read-only memory (ROM) • Located on motherboard • Chip is called BIOS Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    30. Types of RAM • Dynamic RAM (DRAM) • Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) • Double data rate-DRAM (DDR-DRAM) • Static RAM (SRAM) Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    31. PC Memory Chips • Single inline memory module (SIMM) • Each side of edge connector is the same circuit • Dual inline memory module (DIMM) • Edge connectors directly across circuit board from each other do not connect electrically • Small Outline DIMM (SODIMM) • Compact form of DIMM memory Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    32. BIOS • Starts computer when power is applied • Performs a power-on self-test (POST) • Checks to make sure components are in working order Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    33. Functions of the BIOS • A more detailed check after the POST is complete • Automatically detects any new hardware • Plug and play (PnP) technology • Contains CMOS setup program • More modern BIOS chips are flash memory Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    34. Chipsets • Designed to carry out instructions that do not require CPU intervention • Many redundant processes • Direct memory access (DMA) Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    35. Bus Mastering • Moves data between any two major components in a computer • Typically, from a port to a device • Relies on a set of chips built into the motherboard that permit data to move without going through the CPU Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    36. Mass Storage Devices • Magnetic storage devices • Hard disk drives, floppy drives, ZIP drives, and tape drives • Optical, or laser, storage devices • CD-ROMs, CD-RWs, and DVDs Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    37. Magnetic Storage Devices • Process of retrieving data from disk platter is called reading • File allocation table (FAT) keeps track of files on a disk • FAT16 • FAT32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    38. Types of Discs • CD-ROMs (read-only) • CD-Rs (recordable) • CD-RWs (read and write) • DVDs Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    39. CD Drives • CD-R and CD-RW drives can write to a disc and store data as lands and pits • Pits disperse light Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    40. DVD Technology • Storage capacity • MPEG format for compressing video data • HD-DVDs • Blu-ray Discs Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    41. DVD Capacity • Standard DVDs have less capacity than necessary to record in high-definition format • Four different disc layouts for DVDs Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    42. Modems • Used to support communications across telephone lines • Function is to modulate and demodulate signals • Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    43. Review What type of computer device retrieves data from the system? Output device Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    44. Review What might limit the different case styles of a PC? Number of expansion bays (or user’s taste, desk design, space limitations, or requirements of job) Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    45. Review What three components have a form factor? The case, motherboard, and power supply Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    46. Review What are the two main types of expansion slots found in a motherboard? Industrial Standard Architecture (ISA) and Peripheral Component Interface (PCI) Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    47. Review What computer component processes all software program instructions and is responsible for manipulating data? The central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    48. Review What are the two main types of memory used in a computer? Read-only memory (ROM) and random access memory (RAM) Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

    49. Review What are four basic functions of the BIOS? Any four of the following: computer startup, power-on self-test (POST), new hardware detection, CMOS setup, low-level routines, and bootstrap Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.