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Coal Mining. Open Pit Mine. Underground Mine. Coal Conversion Processes. Carbonization and Pyrolysis Low severity (mild gasification) High temperature Direct Liquefaction One-stage reactor technology Two-stage reactor technology Co-processing Hybrid Indirect Liquefaction Gas reactors

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Coal Mining


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coal mining
Coal Mining

Open Pit Mine

Underground Mine

coal conversion processes
Coal Conversion Processes
  • Carbonization and Pyrolysis
    • Low severity (mild gasification)
    • High temperature
  • Direct Liquefaction
    • One-stage reactor technology
    • Two-stage reactor technology
    • Co-processing
    • Hybrid
  • Indirect Liquefaction
    • Gas reactors
    • Slurry reactors
why coal to liquids ctl
Why Coal-To-Liquids (CTL)?
  • Energy Security
    • Size of coal resources
    • Distribution of resources
  • Environment
    • Utilization of clean coal technology
    • Sequestration technology expected
  • Flexibility
    • Advanced technology
    • Co-production capability
  • Economics
    • Competitive with alternatives
    • World oil price volatility
slide5

Coal-to-Liquids – Part of an Unconventional Fuels Portfolio

  • Growing consensus on need to diversify transportation fuel sector
    • Long term: hydrogen
    • Intermediate term: liquids from coal, oil shale, liquids from biomass, increased domestic petroleum production, efficiency
  • Advantages of Coal and CTL Technology
    • U.S. coal reserves amount to 250-year supply at current rates of consumption
    • Coal resources are dispersed (proven reserves in 26 states)
    • 1 ton of coal can be processed into 2 barrels of high-quality liquid fuels
    • Offers opportunity to pre-invest in eventual hydrogen-from-coal production facility
direct coal liquefaction process

Coal

Liquefaction

HTU

Direct Coal Liquefaction Process

H2S, NH3, COx

Recycle H2

C1 – C2

Gas Recovery

Treatment

Make-Up H2

LPG

Gasoline

Refining

Coal + Catalyst

Diesel Fuel

H-Donor

Slurry

Fractionation

Slurry

HVGO

Solvent

De-ashing

DAO

Ash Reject

hybrid dcl icl plant concept
Hybrid DCL/ICL Plant Concept

Indirect Coal

Liquefaction (F-T)

Raw ICL Products

Coal

Gasification

F-T Tail Gas

Product Blending and Refining

Final Products

H2

Hydrogen

Recovery

H2

Direct Coal Liquefaction

Coal

Raw DCL Products

shenhua dcl process
Shenhua DCL Process

Light Gases

Recycle Solvent

Catalyst

Gasoline

Coal Prep

Coal

Slurry Mixing

Jet Fuel

Liquefaction

Fractionation

Separation

Upgrading

Diesel

Residue

N2

H2

Purification

Gasification

Air

Air Separation

O2

First Train: 1 MT/a Liquefaction Oil

indirect coal liquefaction overview
Indirect Coal Liquefaction Overview
  • Synthesis Gas
  • Production
  • Gasification
  • Reforming
    • Steam
    • POX
    • ATR

Natural Gas

Coal

Pet Coke

Biomass

Wastes

F-T

Liquid

Synthesis

Slurry/Fixed/

Fluid-Bed

Tail

Gas

Power

Generation

Product

Recovery

Hydrogen

Recovery

H2

Liquid

Fuels

Wax

O2

Oxygen

Plant

Air

Wax

Hydrocracking

Product

Storage

Naphtha/

Diesel

Liquids

barriers to coal to liquids
Barriers to Coal-To-Liquids
  • Technical
    • Integrated operations of advanced CTL technologies have never been demonstrated
  • Economic
    • Uncertainties about future world oil production
    • High capital and operations costs
    • Investment risks
    • Energy price volatility
barriers to coal to liquids13
Barriers to Coal-To-Liquids
  • Environmental
    • CO2 and criteria pollutant emissions
    • Expansion of coal production and requisite infrastructure (railroads, railcars, etc.)
    • Water use
  • Commercial Deployment
    • Competition for critical process equipment, engineering, and skilled labor
    • Who would take the lead in commercial deployment? Part power part liquid fuels
  • Social
    • NIMBY and public resistance to coal use
slide14

Gasification Technology Overview:The Basic Chemistry

A partial oxidation process that can convert any hydrocarbon into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (synthesis gas or syngas).

(CH)n + O2 H2 + CO

For example:

2 CH4 + O2 4H2 + 2 CO

[ Methane] [Oxygen] [Hydrogen] [Carbon Monoxide]

Process Conditions: 1,800 – 2,800 Deg F, 400 – 1,000 psig

clean coal generation technologies
Clean Coal Generation Technologies
  • Pulverized Coal
  • Fluid Bed Combustion
  • Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle
slide17

IGCC Overview

Energy Ventures Analysis Inc

integrated gasification combined cycle
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle
  • Air vs. oxygen blown gasifiers– potential to save Air separation unit costs, reduce onsite power consumption
  • Dry vs. slurry fuel feed– Improve energy efficiency by 2.6%
  • Hot syngas clean-up– Improve energy efficiency 1.0-1.5%
  • Improve gasifier reliability to save redundancy
  • Gas turbine advancements– new turbine classes (FB->H 2.2% improvement), hydrogen rich fuel combustion for carbon regulation world
  • Shift reactor technology to maximize syngas CO2 capture and hydrogen production for carbon regulation
  • Syngas mercury capture
slide19

Activated Carbon Injection with

COHPAC to Reduce Mercury

Selective Catalytic Reduction

To Reduce NOx Emissions

Flue-Gas Desulfurization to Reduce

Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

MEA Scrubber to capture

Carbon Dioxide Emissions

basic idea of a power plant
Basic Idea of a Power Plant

Steam

Spinning turbine blades and generator

Boiling water

four stages of coal combustion
Four Stages of Coal Combustion
  • Primary Devolatilization
    • Coal Tar + Light HC + H2O
  • Secondary Pyrolysis
    • Tar Light HC + soot
  • Homogeneous Oxidation
    • Light HC + O2CO2 + H2O
  • Char Burnout
    • C + O2CO2
slide23

Potentiality of coal gasification technology

  • CO2 issue is increasingly getting hot topics, requirement of High Efficiency Technology such as IGCC or IGFC, will be increased in future.
  • It is necessary to proceed CCT program included outlook of CO2 recovery and sequestration as a final target.
  • In this case, Coal Gasification will be Key Technology considering of coal utilization potentiality in future.
  • Coal Gasification is also possible to apply for NH3, GTL, and H2 production, it can be said that the technology expandability is so wide range.
slide24

AC

GT

ST

HRSG

Potentiality of coal gasification technology

Gas Clean Up

Electricity

IGCC, IGFC

Coal

Gasifier

Synthetic Fuel GTL, DME

Synthetic Chemical

Fuel Reactor

Oxygen

Synthetic Chemical

Fertilizer Reactor

Air Separation Unit

Fertilizer

Hydrogen

Sift Reactor

CO2

CO2 Disposal

CO2 Separator

Under the Sea

Underground

Coal Mine