Medical Terminology A Presentation by Lori Agid
epiphyseal junction gastroparesis Retinohypothalamic esophageal dysmotility …unfolding the language of medicine Subdural hematoma Glioblastoma multiforme hyperhidrosis Infrapatellar tendon
GREEK OR LATIN BASED Approximately 75% of medical terms are basedon either Greek or Latin
Medical terminology is composed a series of 3 main components: PREFIX WORD ROOT SUFFIX The word root is the noun (the body part) or the subject of the sentence. The word root never changes unless the word changes. The prefix attaches to the front of the word root. Depending on the prefix used, the meaning of the word root will change. The suffix attaches to the end of the word root and like the prefix, the definition of the word root depends on the suffix, as well. Let us take a look at some examples:
In this example, the word root stays the same, but the prefix and suffix differences change its meaning.
Combining Vowel – CV • Along with the word root, prefix and suffix, there is a combining vowel, most often an “o” - occasionally an “i” • It connects between the word root and suffix in order to make the word flow, when ordinarily there would be two connecting consonants; gastr – (stomach) tomy – (incision into) • It would be difficult to combine gastrtomy – so we put an o in between to form the word: gastrotomy
Who can remember walking down the pharmacy aisle holding hands with mom or dad looking up at the sign above that said analgesics? Why didn’t the sign say “pain reliever?” What did “analgesic” mean? The breakdown of the word an – alges – ic is as follows: prefix root word suffix an alges(ia) ic (without) (pain) (pertaining to)
REPETITION When people begin to learn medical terminology they tend to get overwhelned with fear that there is too much to learn and memorize. It is merely memorization and repetition. The more we see the words used, the more we remember them. The only reason we know words like analgesic, hepatitis, tonsillitis, vasectomy, and mammogram - is because of lifelong media exposure. Most do not know the word root, prefix, and suffix breakdown of these words. repetition repetition repetition REPETITION repetition REPETITION REPETITION repetition
WORD ROOT In grade school, we learned this as the subject (noun) of the sentence. As regards to medicine, the word root will refer to the body part. Crani/o - skull Cervic/o - neck Thorac/o - thorax Cephal/o - head Lumb/o – lumbar spine
THE SUFFIX The suffix is always the word ending. It attaches at the end of the word root, usually with an “o” – (noted previously – combining vowel or CV). The suffix usually indicates a procedure, condition, disease, or part of speech. It gives more information about the noun. Medical terms always have a suffix, but do not require a prefix. Let’s start with a common suffix that you know; itis.
Adding “itis” to our original list of word roots: cardi + itis = carditis inflammation of the heart oste + itis = osteitis inflammation of the bone nephr + itis = nephritis inflammation of the kidney gastr + itis = gastritis inflammation of the stomach hepat + itis = hepatitis inflammation of the liver Here is your test – how many words can you think of that end in itis? I have 9 boxes!!! Put your thinking caps on!!
Suffix Examples arthr/o /centesis arthrocentesis joint puncture surgical puncture joint thorac/o/tomy thoracotomy chest incision incision into the chest gastr/o/megaly gastromegaly stomach enlargementenlargement of the stomach cardi/ac cardiac Heart pertaining to pertaining to the heart
VARIOUS SUFFIXES AND MEANINGS -ac, -al, -ar, -ary, -eal, ical, -ile, -ory, -ous, -ic; pertaining to -a, -e, -y a noun ending -ad toward; increase -algesia sensitivity to pain -algia, -dynia pain -ase enzyme -ate something that… -blast embryonic stage of development (immature) -cele swelling; herniation -centesis surgical puncture to withdraw fluid- -cide to kill; to destroy -clasis crushing or breaking up -cyte cell -desis binding or surgical fusion -ectasia stretching or dilatation -ectomy surgical excision (removal) -emesis to vomit -emia blood condition -er one who -esis, -ia, -ism condition of… -gen that which generates -genesis generating; formation -genic pertaining to formation; producing -gram record or picture -graph instrument used to record -graphy process of recording -gravida pregnancy -ian, -ician specialist in a field of study -iasis, -osis abnormal condition of… -iatric(s) relating to medicine; physicians; or medical treatment
THE PREFIX • Word element located at the beginning of the word root • Changes the meaning of the word • Usually indicates a number, time, position, direction, color, or sense of negation
Prefix examples • A- mast -ia without breast condition • Bi- later -al two side pertaining to • hyper- therm -ia excessive heat condition • intra- muscul -ar within muscle pertaining to
VARIOUS PREFIXES AND MEANINGS • bi- twointra- within • dipl- doubleinfra- below • hemi- halfoligo- too few • hyper- excessdextro- right • macro- large levo- left • micro- smallbrady- slow • mono- onetachy- fast • multi- manymal- bad • eu- good brachy- short
Two Word Roots Some medical terms have more than one word root: Osteochondritis Oste / o / chondr / itis Bone / cv /cartilage / inflammation Cardiomyopathy Cardi/o/my/o/pathy Heart/cv/muscle/o/disease
We could not end this quick terminology lesson without having a bit of fun; so beware of the following medical terminology mispronunciations…..
Medical TerminologyMispronunciations • Artery - The study of fine paintings. • Bacteria– Back door of a cafeteria. • Barium - What you do when CPR fails. • Benign - What you are after you be eight. • Coma - A punctuation mark. • Morbid - A higher offer. • Urine- Opposite of you’re out. • Tablet- A small table. • GI Series – Soldier’s ball game.
ORGAN SYSTEMS The body is divided into 10 or so main organ systems.
Body Planes • In medicine the body has designated imaginary horizontal and vertical lines. • It is easier to describe the location of the problem or the affected area.
Midline (Midsagittal) Plane ANY LINE TO THE RIGHT OR LEFT OF THE MIDDLE IS STILL CONSIDERED SAGITTAL, BUT NOT “MIDSAGITTAL” IMAGINE THE BODY LIKE A HARD COVER BOOK – THE MIDDLE WOULD BE THE “MIDLINE” OR “MIDSAGITTAL” LINE.
A L I G N M E N T A N A T O M I C
In terms of opposites: ANTERIOR: front of body POSTERIOR: back of body VENTRAL: frontward (toward belly)like anterior DORSAL: backward like posterior MEDIAL: toward midline of body LATERAL: toward side of body SUPERIOR: upward/above (toward the head) INFERIOR: toward the tail or feet (below) Frontal (coronal) plane Superior (cranial) Transverse plane Inferior (caudal) Anterior (ventral) Posterior (dorsal)
Opposites (cont’d): CRANIAL: toward the head CAUDAL: to the tail DISTAL:farthest from the point of origin of a body part (example: the fingers would be distal when looking at an x-ray of an arm) PROXIMAL:nearest to the point of origin of a body part (example: the shoulder would be proximal when looking at an x-ray of the arm Frontal (coronal) plane Superior (cranial) Transverse plane Inferior (caudal) Anterior (ventral) Posterior (dorsal)
ABDUCTION – AWAY FROM BODY TRUNK ADDUCTION – TOWARD BODY TRUNK
Superficial = Pertaining to the surface of the body Deep = Pertaining to away from the surface of the body
Prone and Supine Dorsiflexion Plantar Flexion
Plantar Flexion Dorsiflexion
THE FINAL POSITION…. THE END