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Today’s Goals . 1.) Know the 3 bones of the hip 2.) Identify major markings 3.) Compare and Contrast Male and Female Hip 4.) Rekindle that special fire. Final is a week from tomorrow!. It’s a doozy ! Hip and Leg will be on it also!. Pelvic (Hip) Girdle.

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today s goals
Today’s Goals

1.) Know the 3 bones of the hip2.) Identify major markings3.) Compare and Contrast Male and Female Hip

4.) Rekindle that special fire

final is a week from tomorrow
Final is a week from tomorrow!
  • It’s a doozy!
  • Hip and Leg will be on it also!
pelvic hip girdle
Pelvic (Hip) Girdle
  • Two hip bones (each also called coxal bone or oscoxae)
    • Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments
    • Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs
    • Support pelvic organs
os coxae
Os coxae
  • Each hip bone consists of three fused bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis
slide8

Base of sacrum

Iliac crest

Sacroiliac

joint

Iliac fossa

Anterior

superior

iliac spine

Sacral

promontory

Coxal

bone

(os coxae

or hip

bone)

Anterior inferior

iliac spine

llium

Sacrum

Pubic

bone

Pelvic brim

Coccyx

Acetabulum

Pubic tubercle

Ischium

Pubic crest

Pubic symphysis

Pubic arch

PLAY

Animation: Rotatable pelvis

Figure 7.29

hip bone
Hip Bone
  • Three regions
    • Ilium
      • Superior region of the coxal bone
      • Auricular surface articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint)
    • Ischium
      • Posteroinferior part of hip bone
    • Pubis
      • Anterior portion of hip bone
      • Midline pubic symphysis joint
slide14

Ilium

Posterior

glutealline*

Iliac crest

Posterior

superior

iIiac spine

Anterior

superior

iliac spine

Posterior inferior

iliac spine*

Inferior

gluteal line

Greater sciatic

notch

Anterior inferior

iliac spine*

Ischial body

Acetabulum

Ischial spine

Pubic body

Lesser sciatic

notch

Pubis

Ischium

Inferior ramus

of pubis*

Ischial

tuberosity

Obturator foramen

Ischial ramus

(a) Lateral view, right hip bone

Figure 7.30a

slide15

Ilium

Iliac fossa

Iliac crest

Posterior

superior

iliac spine

Anterior

superior

iliac spine

Posterior

inferior

iliac spine

Anterior inferior

iliac spine*

Body of

the ilium

Greater sciatic notch

Ischialspine*

Lesser sciatic notch

Pubic tubercle

Obturator

foramen

Articular surface

of pubis (at pubic

symphysis)*

Ischium

Ischial ramus

Inferior ramus

of pubis

(b) Medial view, right hip bone

Figure 7.30b

comparison of male and female pelvis
Comparison of Male and Female Pelvis
  • Female pelvis
    • Adapted for childbearing
    • True pelvis (inferior to pelvic brim) defines birth canal
    • Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity
comparison of male and female pelves
Comparison of Male and Female Pelves
  • Male pelvis
    • Tilted less forward
    • Adapted for support of male’s heavier build and stronger muscles
    • Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep

A man’s hip

slide22

Describe femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges

  • Describe markings and functions on each bone
  • Know how we number piggies
the lower limb
The Lower Limb
  • Carries the weight of the body
  • Subjected to exceptional forces
  • Three segments of the lower limb
    • Thigh: femur
    • Leg: tibia and fibula
    • Foot: 7 tarsal bones in the ankle, 5 metatarsal bones in the metatarsus, and 14 phalanges in the toes
femur
Femur
  • Largest and strongest bone in the body
  • Articulates proximally with the acetabulum of the hip and distally with the tibia and patella
slide25

Neck

Greater

trochanter

Head

Inter-

trochanteric

crest

Lesser trochanter

Gluteal tuberosity

Linea aspera

Apex

Anterior

Facet for lateral

condyle of femur

Facet for

medial

condyle

of femur

Lateral

condyle

Lateral

epicondyle

Surface for

patellar

ligament

Intercondylarfossa

Medial condyle

Posterior

(a) Patella (kneecap)

Lateral epicondyle

Medial

epicondyle

Patellar surface

Anterior view

Posterior view

(b) Femur (thigh bone)

Figure 7.31

bones of the leg
Bones of the Leg

Tibia

  • Medial leg bone
  • Receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot
bones of the leg1
Bones of the leg

Fibula

  • Not weight bearing; no articulation with femur
  • Site of muscle attachment
  • Connected to tibia by interosseous membrane
  • Articulates with tibia via proximal and distal tibiofibular joints
slide28

Lateral condyle

Head

Medial condyle

Tibial tuberosity

Interosseous membrane

Fibula

Tibia

Lateral malleolus

Medial malleolus

(a) Anterior view

Figure 7.32a

slide29

Articular surface

of medial condyle

Articular surface of

lateral condyle

Medial condyle

Head of fibula

Interosseous

membrane

Tibia

Fibula

Articular surface

Medial malleolus

Lateral malleolus

(b) Posterior view

Figure 7.32b

foot tarsals
Foot: Tarsals
  • Seven tarsal bones form the posterior half of the foot
  • Talus transfers most of the weight from the tibia to the calcaneus
  • Other tarsal bones: cuboid, navicular, and the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms
foot metatarsals and phalanges
Foot: Metatarsals and Phalanges
  • Metatarsals:
    • Five metatarsal bones (#1 to #5)
    • Enlarged head of metatarsal 1 forms the “ball of the foot”
  • Phalanges
    • The 14 bones of the toes
    • Each digit (except the hallux) has three phalanges
    • Hallux has no middle phalanx
slide32

Phalanges

Distal

Middle

Proximal

1

2

3

4

5

Metatarsals

Medial

cuneiform

Intermediate

cuneiform

Lateral

cuneiform

Navicular

Cuboid

Tarsals

Talus

Trochlea

of talus

Calcaneus

(a) Superior view

Figure 7.33a

slide33

Facet for

medial

malleolus

Talus

Navicular

Intermediate

cuneiform

Sustentac-

ulum tali

(talar shelf)

First metatarsal

Calcaneus

Medial

cuneiform

Calcaneal

tuberosity

(b) Medial view

PLAY

Animation: Rotatable bones of the foot

Figure 7.33b

arches of the foot
Arches of the Foot
  • Arches are maintained by interlocking foot bones, ligaments, and tendons
  • Arches allow the foot to bear weight
  • Three arches
    • Lateral longitudinal
    • Medial longitudinal
    • Transverse
slide35

Medial longitudinal

arch

Transverse arch

Lateral

longitudinal arch

(a) Lateral aspect of right foot

Figure 7.34a

developmental aspects fetal skull
Developmental Aspects: Fetal Skull
  • Infant skull has more bones than the adult skull
  • Skull bones such as the mandible and frontal bones are unfused
  • At birth, skull bones are connected by fontanelles
    • Fontanelles
      • Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes between fetal skull bones
      • Four fontanelles
        • Anterior, posterior, mastoid, and sphenoid