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Topics for Today

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  1. Topics for Today • Climate Change: A Global Problem? Part II • The Carbon Cycle

  2. Readings for Today • 3.8 Methane and other greenhouse gases  •  3.10 Responding to science with policy changes •  3.11 The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change •  3.12 Global warming and ozone depletion

  3. Readings for Today • 3.5 The Carbon Cycle

  4. Topics for Wednesday • How do we make gasoline?

  5. Topics for Wednesday • Distillation, fractionation, thermal cracking, and octane number

  6. Readings for Wednesday • 4.8 Petroleum • 4.9 The part on cracking

  7. Topics for Friday • What’s all the other stuff in my gasoline? • Quiz #8

  8. Topics for Friday • Gasoline additives (MTBE, ethanol, and oxygenates)

  9. Readings for Friday • 4.10 Newer fuels and other sources

  10. Topics for Today • Climate Change: A Global Problem? Part II • The Carbon Cycle http://www.esd.ornl.gov/iab/iab2-2.htm

  11. 2) The Earth’s temperature is rising… 1) GHGs are generally increasing… Are these related ?

  12. It depends on who you ask… Handout.

  13. According to the 2006 UN report… It was "very likely" -- or more than 90 percent probable -- that human activities led by burning fossil fuels explained most of the warming in the past 50 years. That is a toughening from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) last report in 2001, which judged a link as "likely," or 66 percent probable.

  14. We will come back to this… “What are some simple steps we can take home to combat global warming?” Wed December 13, 2006 Leonardo DiCaprio

  15. Kyoto Global Climate Treaty 1997

  16. Kyoto Protocol • Established goals to reduce and stabilize levels of 6 GHG. • CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 3.11

  17. 2005 Emitters

  18. Kyoto Protocol • “Achieve stable greenhouse gas concentrations a century or two from now.” Science, vol 290, November 3, 2000 Long-term Goal

  19. Kyoto Protocol • By 2012, reduce greenhouse gas emissions of developed nations 5.2% below the 1990 level. Short-term goal

  20. 2005 Emitters China and India are considered “developing nations.”

  21. Goal • For the U.S., achieve a 7% reduction below 1990 levels.

  22. Science, vol 290, November 3, 2000

  23. Kyoto Protocol • Takes effect when ratified by developed nations that emit 55% of the world’s GHG. Has this happened?

  24. 2001 • 100 nations (including the U.S.) signed the treaty.

  25. Need 55%! 2001 • Romania ratified treaty. TOTAL: 1.2 % of the emissions

  26. Need 55%! 2002 Czech Republic 1.2% Japan 8.5% Germany 7.4% UK 4.3% TOTAL: 37.4% of the emissions

  27. Need 55%! 2003 • More signings … Canada 3.3% Poland 3.0% TOTAL: 43.7 % of the emissions

  28. Need 55%! 2003 • President Bush rejects Kyoto as too costly and ignores China and India. The US emits about 25% of the world’s GHGs! For you… alternatives for electricity to burning fossil fuels??

  29. Need 55%! 2003 • President Bush rejects Kyoto as too costly and ignores China and India. The US emits about 25% of the world’s GHGs! Alternatives to burning fossil fuels?? Without Russia ratifying, the treaty has no chance of being implemented

  30. Need 55%! Feb 16, 2005 • Russian Federation signs! +17.4% TOTAL: 61.6 % of the emissions

  31. Kyoto Protocol an international & legally binding agreement to reduce GHG emissions world-wide. February 16, 2005 The US is not taking part in the agreement. 3.11

  32. Kyoto Protocol

  33. New Efforts

  34. The EU has gone BEYOND the Kyoto Protocol Has agreed to cut GHGs by 20% from 1990 levels by 2020.

  35. ALSO! 10% of autos will run on biofuels (made from plants).

  36. “What are some simple steps we can take home to combat global warming?” Wed December 13, 2006 Leonardo DiCaprio

  37. 1) Unplug your electronics!!

  38. “Phantom electricity”

  39. 2) Drive Smart! Q. For a car in good condition, what is the biggest contributor to poor gas mileage??

  40. Braking!

  41. Topics for Today • Climate Change: A Global Problem? Part II • The Carbon Cycle

  42. http://www.esd.ornl.gov/iab/iab2-2.htm

  43. 1 billion tons of carbon = 1 gigaton (or GtC) = 1,000,000,000 tons

  44. http://www.esd.ornl.gov/iab/iab2-2.htm

  45. What is wood made up of? Cellulose!

  46. Cellulose • A chain (polymer) of glucose molecules. Glucose: C6H12O6

  47. Cellulose

  48. Burn the wood, …

  49. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O