Welcome to the Project Cycle Management Training Day 3 Section 1 SOMALIA AGRICULTURE AND LIVELIHOODS CLUSTER Training prepared and implemented by: Italian National Research Council Institute for International Legal Studies Section of Naples
Project Cycle Management Training This section’s focus Technical Basis of PCM: Identification and formulation phases PCM instruments • The Stakeholder matrix • The SWOT analysis
The Stakeholder Matrix Any individual, group of people, institution or firm that may have a significant interest in the success or failure of a project (either as implementers, facilitators, beneficiaries or adversaries) is defined as a ‘stakeholder’. Who are the stakeholders?
The Stakeholder Matrix Each stakeholder has different concerns, needs or interest and these need to be understood before proceeding to problem identification, objective setting and strategy selection, in order to ensure the success of our initiative.
The Stakeholder Matrix So, our first step to clarify our strategy shall be the drafting of a Stakeholder Matrix. What is it? The stakeholder matrix is basically a virtual “map” of all the actors in the area of intervention and of their relations with each other with regards to the problems we are addressing
The Stakeholder Matrix The key questions asked by stakeholder analysis are therefore ‘Whose problems or opportunities are we analysing’ and ‘Who will benefit or loose-out, and how, from a proposed project intervention’?
The Stakeholder Matrix The ultimate aim being to help maximize the social, economic and institutional benefits of the project to target groups and ultimate beneficiaries, and minimise its potential negative impacts (including stakeholder conflicts).
The Stakeholder Matrix We should first enlist all the stakeholders and define if affected by or interested in the issue at stake
The Stakeholder Matrix FIRST LIST Agricultural families Children Women Local authorities Local agricultural cooperative School Households Nomadic families Fishing families ….
The Stakeholder Matrix After having enlisted all the stakeholders, we should proceed to discuss their main characteristics and possible relations with the issue at stake. And proceed to select those we consider as most relevant.
The Stakeholder Matrix • Our underlying question should be: how affected by the general problem or opportunity is the stakeholder?
The Stakeholder Matrix FIRST LIST SELECTED LIST • Agricultural families • Local authorities • Households • Local agricultural cooperative Agricultural families Children Women Local authorities Local agricultural cooperative School Households Nomadic families Fishing families ….
The Stakeholder Matrix • The type of information in the matrix can be adapted to meet the needs of different circumstances. For example, additional columns could be added to specifically deal with the different interests of women and men.
The SWOT analysis 2 SWOT Analysis
The SWOT analysis What is it? SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) is used to analyse the internal strengths and weaknesses of an organization and the external opportunities and threats that it faces. It can be used either as a tool for general analysis, or to look at how an organization might address a specific problem or challenge.
The SWOT analysis • As a tool at project level the SWOT analysis can be used through all phases but • Focusing on organisational capacities and weaknesses it proves most relevant at the inception phases of the project as a tool to assess partners and stakeholders
The SWOT analysis - output The information should be used to build upon strengths and in order to structure/provide means of minimizing or avoiding weaknesses and risks
The SWOT analysis Three main stages: • Ideas are generated about the internal strengths and weaknesses of a group or organization, and the external opportunities and threats; • The situation is analysed by looking for ways in which the group/organisation’s strengths can be built on to overcome identified weaknesses, and opportunities can be taken to minimize threats • A strategy for making improvements is formulated
The SWOT analysis Within the framework of our exercise of course, the analysis should be conducted not on each single NGO, but on the partnership as a whole, taking into consideration strengths and weaknesses of the three actors combined.
The SWOT analysis Internal Past External Future Positive Negative
The SWOT analysis As an example the following SWOT matrix shows the analysis of a group of agricultural cooperatives focusing on their capacity to represent members’ interests and manage change
Welcome to the Project Cycle Management Training Day 3 Section 2 SOMALIA AGRICULTURE AND LIVELIHOODS CLUSTER Training prepared and implemented by: Italian National Research Council Institute for International Legal Studies Section of Naples
This section’s focus Project Cycle Management Training Identification and formulation phases PCM instruments • The Problem Tree • Analysis of Objective
The Problem Tree 3 The problem tree
The Problem Tree Problem analysis identifies the negative aspects of an existing situation and establishes the ‘cause and effect’ relationships between the identified problems. It involves three main steps:
The Problem Tree Definition of the framework and subject of analysis; Identification of the major problemsfaced by target groups and beneficiaries (What is/are the problem/s? Whose problems?); and Visualisation of the problems in form of a diagram, called a “problem tree” or “hierarchy of problems” to help analyse and clarify cause–effect relationships.
The Problem Tree • Creating a problem tree should ideally be undertaken as a participatory group event. • It requires the use of individual pieces of paper or cards on which to write individual problem statements, which can then be sorted into cause and effect relationships on a visual display.
The Problem Tree Stakeholder analysis and problem analysis are closely connected as part of the initial “Situation Analysis”. Indeed they should in practice be conducted ‘in tandem’ rather than ‘one after the other’. The issues identified in the stakeholder analysis are going to form the basis of your “problem analysis” All subsequent steps required to prepare a Logical Framework Matrix (or Logframe) should also be related to the stakeholder analysis, making it a point of continuous reference.
The Problem Tree The Steps: • The aim of the first step is to openly brainstorm problems which stakeholders consider to be a priority. This first step can either be completely open or focus on specific aspects • From the problems identified through the brainstorming exercise, select an individual starter problem. • Look for related problems to the starter problem
The Problem Tree • Begin to establish a hierarchy of cause and effects: Problems which are directly causing the starter problem are put below Problems which are direct effects of the starter problem are put above • All other problems are then sorted in the same way
The Problem Tree • Connect the problems with cause-effect arrows • Review the diagram and verify its validity and completeness. Ask yourself/the group – ‘are there important problems that have not been mentioned yet?’ • Distribute for comment and information
EFFECT PROBLEM 1 EFFECT PROBLEM 2 STARTER PROBLEM CAUSE PROBLEM 1 CAUSE PROBLEM 3 The Problem Tree CAUSE PROBLEM 2
Analysis of Objectives 4 Analysis of Objectives
Analysis of Objectives Analysis of objectives is a methodological approach employed to: • Describe the situation in the future once identified problems have been remedied; • Verify the hierarchy of objectives; • Illustrate the means-ends relationships in a diagram. • The ‘negative situations’ of the problem tree are converted into solutions, expressed as ‘positive achievements’.
Analysis of Objectives Steps: • Reformulate all negative situations of the problems analysis into positive situations that are desirable and realistically achievable • Check the means-ends relationships to ensure validity and completeness of the hierarchy • If necessary: • revise statements • add new objectives if these seem to be relevant • delete objectives which do not seem suitable or necessary
OVERALL OBJECTIVE 1 OVERALL OBJECTIVE 2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE RESULT 1 RESULT 3 The Objective Tree RESULT 2
The Objective Tree It is above all in this phase that the SWOT analysis might prove useful as it provides an instrument to assess which objectives could be reasonably pursued with the group of partners identified and leaving out the rest of the objectives and/or results
The Objective Tree The objective tree can already provide us with a picture of the hierarchy of our project intervention.
The Objective Tree – claustering/integrative analysis • As we have seen there are plural possibilities to tackle our starter problem (to become our specific objective). • We should then define our specific strategy of intervention. This should be decided on the basis of: • Longer term impacts • Social and political feasibility • National/local government policies on the issues • Other interventions in the same area • Specific relevance of the various components • Efficacy of the various approaches to the problem • Our SWOT analysis, and, linked to this • Our capacities (technical, human, financial)
The Objective Tree – in/out strategy selection Selected strategy