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PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT TRAINING
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PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT TRAINING

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  1. PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT TRAINING September 2013

  2. a discrete activity aimed at specific objective with a defined budget and limited timeframe Project ????

  3. relevant Project has to be feasible sustainable

  4. Project Cycle Management • is a methodology for the preparation, implementation and evaluation of projects based on the principles of the logical framework approach (LFA) • describes management activities and decision-making procedures used during the life cycle of a project • Key tasks • Roles and responsibilities • Key documents and decision options

  5. The Project Cycle Identification Monitoring&Evaluation Analysis Implementation Formulation Financing

  6. Logical Framework Approach

  7. The PCM Toolkit LFA Tools: • Stakeholder analysis • Problem analysis • Analysis of objectives • Strategy analysis • Logframe • Activity planning • Resource scheduling Complementary Tools: • Participatory workshops • Environmental assessment • Gender analysis • Institutional appraisal • Economic & financial analysis YPRAE - PCM - E.Leuzzi 7

  8. Logical Framework Approach • Technique to set up a project involving the identification of problems, prioritisation of objectives, definition of resultsand related activitiesthrough a careful consideration of the means, success indicators and assumptions. • LFAis a key management tool in each phase of the project cycle: from implementation to evaluation, representing a «master tool» for creating other tools (e.g. implementation and resource schedules, monitoring plan, etc.)

  9. Logical Framework Approach (LFA) is an analytical process(involving stakeholder analysis, problem analysis, objective setting and strategy selection) Logical Framework Matrix (LFM) provides the documented productof the analytical process(while requiring further analysis of objectives, how they will be achieved and potential risks)

  10. Analysis Phase Planning Phase Stakeholder analysis Developing Logical Framework matrix • identifying and characterise potential stakeholders • assess their capacity • defining project structure • testing logic and risks • formulating measurable indicators of success • identifying key problems, constraintsandopportunities • determining cause-effect relationships Problem analysis Objective Analysis • developing solutions from the identified problems • identifying an improved situation in the future Activity andResource Scheduling • determining the sequence and dependency of activities • estimating their duration • assigning responsibility Strategy Analysis • identifying different strategies to achieve solutions • selecting most appropriate strategy from the Activity Schedule, developing input schedules and a budget

  11. LFA is a systematic planning procedure for complete project cycle management • It is a problem solving approach which takes into account the views of allstakeholders • It also agrees on the criteria for project success and lists the major assumptions

  12. Verifiable indicators Sources of verification Intervention Logic Assumptions Overall objective Project purpose Results Pre-conditions Activities means costs

  13. Stakeholder Analysis

  14. Stakeholder analysis Stakeholders - those who are influenced by and exert an influence on the project entity Mapping of stakeholders and their respective roles Who will be influenced, positively or negatively, by the project Which stakeholders should be involved in planning and/or implementing the Project. Stakeholder Analysis

  15. Stakeholder Analysis • Purpose: • To identify: • The needs and interest of stakeholders • The organizations, groups that should be encouraged to participate in different stages of the project; • Potential risks that could put at risk project/programme; • Opportunities in implementing a project/programme; • To assess the performance and capacity of the participating units, divisions of organization. • Each participating unit has to undertake SWOT analysis.

  16. Stakeholders: Individuals or institutions thatmay – directly or indirectly, positively ornegatively – affect or be affected by a project orprogramme. • Beneficiaries:are those who benefit in whateverway from the implementation of the project. • Target group(s):The group/entity who will bedirectly positively affected by the project at theProject Purpose level. • Final beneficiaries: Those who benefit from theproject in the long term at the level of thesociety or sector at large, e.g. “children” due toincreased spending on health and education,“consumers” due to improved agricultural production / marketing. • Project partners: Those who implement theprojects in-country (who are also stakeholders,and may be a ‘target group’).

  17. Stakeholder Analysis • Who are Project Partners? • Applicant • Co-applicant(s) • Affiliated entities • Associates • Contractors

  18. Stakeholder Analysis • Applicant • The entity submitting the application form. It should • be legal persons and • be non-profit-making and • be directly responsible for the preparation and management of the action with the co-applicant(s) and affiliated entity(ies), not acting as an intermediary and • be established in the northern part of Cyprus and • be a local community or • be a Civil Society Organisation established under private law: Non-Governmental Organisation, Chamber, Association, Union or Foundation.

  19. Stakeholder Analysis • The applicant must act with co-applicant(s) under Community Development Grant Scheme (3) • If awarded the Grant contract, the applicant will become the Beneficiary identified as the Coordinator. • The Coordinator is the main interlocutor of the Contracting Authority. It represents and acts on behalf of any other co-beneficiary (if any) and coordinate the design and implementation of the Action.

  20. Stakeholder Analysis • Co-applicant(s) • Proposals under the CfP will be submitted obligatory by one applicant in partnership with at least one co- applicant. • Proposals for grants equal or higher than € 300.000 will be submitted by one applicant in partnership with at least 2 co-applicants. Furthermore, in this latter case, at least one local community and one Civil Society Organization must be part of the partnership. • In all cases, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) will be required to be submitted at phase two of the call (full application form), signed by all co-applicants.

  21. Stakeholder Analysis • Co-applicant(s) • participate in designing and implementing the action, and the costs they incur are eligible in the same way as those incurred by the applicant. • must satisfy the eligibility criteria as applicable to the applicant himself. • must sign the Mandate in Part B section 4 of the grant application form. • If awarded the Grant contract, the co-applicant(s)(if any) will become beneficiaries in the Action (together with the Coordinator)

  22. Stakeholder Analysis Affiliated Entities legal entities together forming one entity, including where it is specifically established for the purpose of implementing the action. In this case, the resulting entity may apply as a applicant or co-applicant whereas the other entities as its affiliated entity(ies). legal entities having a link with the applicants, notably a legal or capital link, which is neither limited to the action nor established for the sole purpose of its implementation on the condition that they satisfy the eligibility and non-exclusion criteria of an applicant.

  23. Stakeholder Analysis • Affiliated Entities • If the applicants are awarded a contract, their affiliated entity(ies) will not be become Beneficiary(ies) of the Action and signatory(ies) of the Contract. • will participate in the design and in the implementation of the Action and the costs they incur (including those incurred for Implementation Contracts and Financial Support to third parties) may be accepted as eligible costs, provided they comply with all the relevant rules. • must satisfy respectively the eligibility criteria as applicable to the applicant and to the co-applicant(s). • must sign the affiliated entity(ies) statement in Part B section 5 of the grant application form.

  24. Stakeholder Analysis Associates Other organisations may be involved in the action. Such associates play a real role in the action but may not receive funding from the grant, with the exception of per diem or travel costs. Associates do not have to meet the eligibility criteria referred to in section 2.1.1. Associates must be mentioned in Part B section 6 — ‘Associates of the Applicant participating in the Action’ — of the Grant Application Form.

  25. Stakeholder Analysis • Contractors • The grant beneficiaries and their affiliated entities are permitted to award contracts. • Associates or affiliated entity(ies) cannot be also contractors in the project. • Contractors are subject to the procurement rules set out in Annex IV to the standard grant contract.

  26. Stakeholder Analysis The grant beneficiaries may award financial support to third entities These entities are neither affiliated entity(ies) nor associates nor contractors. However, they are subject to the nationality and origin rules set out in Annex IV to the standard grant contract.

  27. Problem Analysis

  28. Purpose:to identify major problems and their main causal relationships. Output:problem tree with cause and effects Problem Analysis

  29. Identify the major problems that the project will address. State problems in negative manner. Group problems by similarity of concerns. Develop the problem tree: Select a focal problem from the list and relate other problems to the focal problem. If the problem is a cause of the focal problem it is placed below the focal problem If the problem is an effect of the focal problem is goes above Steps in Undertaking Problem Tree Problem Analysis

  30. Problem Tree EFFECT CAUSE

  31. Drivers do not follow rules New buses have not been purchased Many technical problems of buses Many old buses Buses are maintained poorly Insufficient equipment at workshop Drivers are not trained Problem Tree Incidence of bus accidents ishigh Road condition is too bad Regular tech. is not done Mechanics tech. is inadequate

  32. Problem Tree – Simple Example Problem Tree Establishing cause-effect relations between problems Decreasing in-comes of artisanal fisherfolk Effects Low price received by artisanal fisherfolk in the village Decreasing fish stocks Causes Processed fish is of bad quality Limited access to markets Destruction of coral & mangrove habitats Illegal fishing methods applied

  33. ObjectiveAnalysis

  34. ObjectiveAnalysis Objective Analysis clarifies the means-ends relationship between the desirable situation that would be attained and the solution for attaining it. This stage also requires an Objective Tree.

  35. ObjectiveAnalysis How to Make the Objective Tree Step 1: Reformulate all negative situation of the problem tree intopositive situationsthat are : • Desirable • Realistically achievable Step 2: Make sure that there is a means – ends (results) relationship(if this is implementedthenthis will be achieved) The causes become the starting point for the objectives. The effects become the results of the objectives. Step 3: IF necessary: • Revise statements • Add new objectivesif these seem to be relevant and necessary to achieve the objective at the next higher level • Delete objectives which do not see suitable or necessary

  36. Drivers do follow rules New buses purchased Fewer technical troubles Fewer old buses Bus drivers trained ObjectiveTree Incidence of bus accidents islowered Better road infrastructure Bus is maintained adequately Regular tech. check done Sufficient equipment provided Mechanics tech. is improved

  37. StrategyAnalysis

  38. StrategyAnalysis Strategyanalysisis a process in which specific project strategies are selected from among the objectives and meansraised in Objectives Analysis,based upon selection criteria. • comparison of different options toaddress a given situation

  39. StrategyAnalysis Step 1: Identify objectives you do not want to pursue (not desirable or not feasible); Step 2: Group objectives, to obtain possible strategies or components (clustering); Step 3: Assess which strategy/ies represent(s) an optimal strategy according to the agreed criteria; Step 4: Determine Overall Objective(s) and Project Purpose

  40. Road Improvement Approach Driver follows rules Fewer technical troubles New buses purchased Bus drivers trained Driver Training Approach Bus Maintenance Approach Incidence of bus accidents islowered Better road infrastructure Fewer old buses Bus is maintained adequately Regular tech. check done Mechanics tech. is improved Sufficient equipment provided

  41. Road Improvement Approach Driver follows rules Fewer technical troubles New buses purchased Driver Training Approach Bus drivers trained Bus Maintenance Approach Bus Safety Operation Approach Incidence of bus accidents islowered Better road infrastructure Fewer old buses Bus is maintained adequately Regular tech. check done Mechanics tech. is improved Sufficient equipment provided

  42. PLANNING PHASE

  43. Analysis Phase Planning Phase Stakeholder analysis Developing Logical Framework matrix • identifying and characterise potential stakeholders • assess their capacity • defining project structure • testing logic and risks • formulating measurable indicators of success • identifying key problems, constraintsandopportunities • determining cause-effect relationships Problem analysis Objective Analysis • developing solutions from the identified problems • identifying an improved situation in the future Activity andResource Scheduling • determining the sequence and dependency of activities • estimating their duration • assigning responsibility Strategy Analysis • identifying different strategies to achieve solutions • selecting most appropriate strategy from the Activity Schedule, developing input schedules and a budget

  44. Logframe Matrix

  45. Logframe Matrix • The main output of the LFA is the logframe matrix The LOGFRAME MATRIX is • a participatory Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation tool whose power depends on the degree to which it incorporates the full range of views of intended beneficiaries and others who have a stake in the programme/project design. • is a tool for summarizing the key features of a programme/project and is best used to help programme/project designers and stakeholders.

  46. Logframe Matrix • The Logical Framework Matrix is used to present information about project objectives, outputs and activities in a systematic and logical way. • The basic Logframe matrix contains 16 cells organized into 4 columns and 4 rows, as indicated in the next slide:

  47. Intervention Logic: Levelsof Objectives The long-term social and economic, sectoral or national program objectives to which the project contributes. The project’s central objective: sustainable benefits to be delivered to target beneficiaries. It defines the project’s success. The services to be provided by the project for which project managers can be held accountable What is going to be done to deliver the project’s results Overall Objectives Project Purpose Results Activities

  48. Logframe Matrix Hierarchy of Objectives • IF adequate inputs/resources are provided, THEN activities can be undertaken; • IF the activities are undertaken, THEN results can be produced; • IF results are produced, THEN the purpose will be achieved; and • IF the purpose is achieved, THEN this should contribute towards the overall objective