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Name \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ Date \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ Period \_\_\_\_. Valence Electron Interaction and Charges. The Role of Electrons in Bonding. The sharing or transfer of electrons is what holds atoms together in a compound Typically, only the electrons in the

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Presentation Transcript
name date period

Name _____________________ Date _________ Period ____

Valence Electron Interaction and Charges

the role of electrons in bonding
The Role of Electrons in Bonding
  • The sharing or transfer of

electrons is what holds atoms together in a

compound

    • Typically, only the electrons in the

outer energy level are used for bonding.

      • These electrons are called Valence Electrons
      • The outer energy level is called the Valence Shell
comprehension check
Comprehension Check
  • How many electron shells does phosphorus have?
    • 3
  • How many valence electrons does phosphorus have?
    • 5
pwyr valence schmalence
PWYR – Valence Schmalence
  • tin
    • 4
  • arsenic
    • 5
  • strontium
    • 2
  • bromine
    • 7
  • sodium
    • 1
  • tellurium
    • 6
  • gallium
    • 3
  • krypton
    • 8
bonding
Bonding
  • Ionic Bonds – Results from the complete

transfer of electrons

      • Results in a formation of two charged atoms called ions
        • The atom that gains electrons becomes negatively charged and is called an anion
        • The atom that loses electrons becomes positively charged and is called a cation
octet rule
Octet Rule
  • Octet Rule: atoms want to have a full valence shell (8 valence electrons)
      • Atoms react with one another in an attempt to gain or lose electrons to fill their valence shell
      • During a reaction, electrons can be shared or completely transferred
  • Two options
    • Gain electrons to fill valence shell
    • Lose electrons to reveal full shell below outer shell (outer shell)
oxidation numbers
Oxidation Numbers
  • Oxidation Numbers tell us how many electrons an atom is willing to lose or gain
    • Positive oxidation numbers indicate that the atom can lose that many electrons
    • Negative oxidation numbers indicate that the atom can gain that many electrons
    • Some atoms have more than one possibility
      • Transition Metals
alkali and a halogen valence electrons
Alkali and a Halogen Valence Electrons

Missing Electron

Extra Electron

slide9
valence electron = 1
  • Easier to give away for full valence shell
  • Cation = positive

-getting ride of

negative particle

  • Charge = +1
  • valence electron = 7
  • Easier to take in for full valence shell
  • Anion = Negative

- taking in negative

particle

  • Charge = -1
periodic table
Periodic Table
  • Groups have same valence electrons
    • Same oxidation number

8

1

7

0

-1

2

+1

5

3

4

6

-3

-2

+2

+3

+/-4

comprehension check to gain or not to gain
Comprehension Check- To Gain or Not to Gain
  • Nitrogen 
  • Beryllium 
  • Xenon 
  • carbon 
  • Oxygen 
  • Lithium 
  • Chlorine 
  • Boron 

Gain 3

Lose 2

None

Gain/Lose 4

  • Gain 2
  • Lose 1
  • Gain 1
  • Lose 3
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