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General Overview of the Antebellum Period. 1810’s-1860’s. By: Emerson Barker. Note: This does not cover everything you need for the test, but it hits the high points. Madison’s 2 nd Administration. Madison wins the 1812 elections War of 1812 begins with Britain Hartford Convention meets

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general overview of the antebellum period

General Overview of the Antebellum Period

1810’s-1860’s

By: Emerson Barker

Note: This does not cover everything you need for the test, but it hits the high points.

madison s 2 nd administration
Madison’s 2nd Administration
  • Madison wins the 1812 elections
  • War of 1812 begins with Britain
  • Hartford Convention meets
    • Northern states demand more power and threaten to succeed
    • Laughed out of Congress (high American Morale)
    • Dooms the Federalist party
monroe s 1 st administration
Monroe’s 1st Administration
  • Monroe wins the 1816 election
  • Downfall of the Federalist Party
    • Leads to the Era of Good Feelings (1817-1824)
treaties with britain
Treaties with Britain
  • Convention of 1818:
      • Sets Canada/U.S. border at the 49th parallel
      • Gives U.S./Britain joint occupation of the Oregon Territory
  • Rush-Bagot Treaty:
      • Demilitarizes the Great Lakes
land added to the u s
Land Added to the U.S.
  • At this point Spain still owns Florida
  • But this is only in title, in reality Native Americans and slaves have fled there during the War of 1812
  • Spain decides to sell Florida to the U.S. before they lose it
  • Sold to U.S. for $5 million
monroe s 2 nd administration
Monroe’s 2nd Administration
  • Virtually unanimous, his opponent Adams, only received one vote
missouri compromise
Missouri Compromise
  • 1820: Missouri wants to join the U.S. and become a state
  • Leads to Compromise of 1820
    • Missouri enters as a slave state
    • Maine enters as a free state
    • Free/slave boundary set at 36’ 30” line
monroe doctrine 1823
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
  • Followed a year of revolutions in Central America, South America, and Mexico
  • No further European interference in the Western Hemisphere
  • We won’t intervene in Europe (as if we could)
  • British navy supports the Doctrine so that U.S./Britain can trade with the new and emerging weak nations
john quincy adam s administration
John Quincy Adam’s Administration
  • Jackson vs. Adams
  • Jackson wins the popular vote but lacks a majority
  • Taken to House to be voted on
  • Henry Clay throws his support behind Adams and helps him win the election
  • Clay is appointed Secretary of State (stepping stone to the Presidency)
  • Called the Corrupt Bargain Election
jackson s 1 st administration
Jackson’s 1st Administration
  • Jackson wins the 1828 election
  • Age of the Common Man
  • Property requirement for voting removed
tariff of 1828
Tariff of 1828
  • High protective tariff
  • South calls it the Tariff of Abominations
  • John Calhoun “South Carolina Exposition and Protest”
supreme court case
Supreme Court Case
  • Gibbons vs. Ogden
  • Reaffirmed the power of the federal government over interstate trade
transportation
Transportation
  • Age of Canal Building
  • Age of Steamboats
jackson s 2 nd administration
Jackson’s 2nd Administration
  • Jackson wins the 1832 election
  • Beginning of national party platforms and conventions
indian removal act
Indian Removal Act
  • Passed to remove Indians from valuable land
  • Bought land from natives or took it by force
  • Supreme Court ruled that this was unconstitutional in Wouchsters vs. Georgia
  • Jackson refused to enforce the ruling
  • Led in the end to the horrible Trail of Tears
1832 tariff
1832 Tariff
  • Not any lower than the Tariff of Abominations
  • South Carolina claims the power to ignore the tariff and refuses to enforce it
  • Congress passes the Force Bill
      • Gives Jackson the authority to take federal troops to South Carolina and enforce the law
  • Compromise Tariff passed by Henry Clay
    • Slightly lowers the tariff and allows South Carolina to save face
clay great compromiser voice of the west
Clay: Great Compromiser, Voice of the West
  • Negotiated numerous compromises throughout the country’s history
  • Strongly for the power of the national government
  • Pro-industry and economic development
  • For a high protective tariff
  • Supports the National Bank
  • For internal improvements
  • Against slavery
  • Likes reform movements
  • Against the Indian Removal Act
  • Against expanison
daniel webster champion of federal power speaker for the north
Daniel Webster: Champion of Federal Power, Speaker for the North
  • Power to the National Government
  • Protect manufacturing in the North
  • High protective tariff for northern industry
  • Pro National Bank
  • Federal government should pay for internal improvements
  • Immigrants as a labor force
  • Favors reform movements
  • Against expansion (north will lose power)
  • Negotiate with Native Americans (but it is not his issue
john calhoun flip flopper spokesperson of the south
John Calhoun: Flip flopper, Spokesperson of the South
  • Changes his mind about almost every issue, the ones listed are his final pro-southern views
  • States rights, states put together the government
  • Pro-agriculture
  • Against the tariff, it hurts farmers
  • Anti-national bank, infringes on state rights
  • Against federal internal improvements
  • Slavery is a positive good, use as a labor force
  • No reform movements, could lead to abolition
  • Expand and bring in new slave states
  • Pro-Indian removal
national bank
National Bank
  • Jackson refuses to re-charter the National Bank
  • After an argument with Biddle (the bank manager) he withdraws government funds and thereby destroys the bank
  • Places government money in unsafe state pet banks
texas revolution
Texas Revolution
  • Texans lose at the Alamo
  • Win the final battle at San Jacinto
  • Texas gains its independence from Mexico
  • We refuse to allow Texas to become a state
    • It would destroy the balance of slave/free states
    • Could split its large land area up to make more slave states
court case
Court Case
  • Charles River Bridge Case
    • Decided that just because on company got a contract to build the bridge doesn’t mean another can’t build a second bridge and compete
    • Tested whether competition, and thereby capitalism, was legal
    • Court found in favor of the second bridge company, reinforced the ideal of capitalism
van buren s administration
Van Buren’s Administration
  • Van Buren wins the 1836 election and takes office as Jackson’s heir
  • Soon called “Van Ruin” because of the loss of federal funds in unsafe state pet banks and Panic of 1837
william henry harrison john tyler s administration
William Henry Harrison/John Tyler’s Administration
  • Wins 1840 election but stands out in the rain with no coat while giving his speech, dies within a month
  • John Tyler takes over and elevates himself to the office of President (1st time a president died in office)
  • Fails to follow his party (Whigs) on any issue
    • Vetoes National Bank
    • Vetoes money for internal improvements
    • Lowers the tariff to less than 20%
  • Cabinet resigns and he is the only President to be kicked out of his party while in office
aroostock war
Aroostock War
  • Small scale war in the North over the official boundary of Maine and New Brunswick
  • Ended by the Webster-Asheburton Treaty
    • U.S. gives up a small area of Maine
    • Britain gives up and area of Minnesota
polk s administration
Polk’s Administration
  • Polk wins the 1844 election
  • “54’ 40” or fight”
territory taken in peacefully
Territory taken in peacefully
  • Oregon Territory: follow the 1818 Convention and sets the border at the 49th parallel
    • North is infuriated
    • They just lost land that could have become free states
    • He completely ignored his slogan….
  • Texas joins the Union
  • Gadsden Purchase fills out the Continental U.S.

But why?

the rather convenient mexican american war
The Rather Convenient Mexican-American War
  • Starts over the disputed land between the Nueces River and Rio Grande, our troops are fired on here
  • Zachary Taylor is conveniently in the area
  • Our troops are also stationed at the northern border of California
  • Our Navy is conveniently off the California coast
  • So the war starts with our troops already positioned in key tactical positions….convenient
  • Ends with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo once we take Mexico city
  • Take the Mexican Cession (California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico)
seneca falls 1848
Seneca Falls (1848)
  • Women meet to unite and demand rights
  • Publish the Declaration of Sentience calling for women’s rights
  • Called by Elizabeth Katie Stanton
zachary taylor millard fillmore
Zachary Taylor/Millard Fillmore
  • Zachary Taylor wins the 1848 election
  • Comes in as a war hero from the Mexican-American War
  • Dies and replaced by Vice-President Fillmore
revolutions
Revolutions
  • Communication
    • Morse’s telegraph
    • Numerous newspapers and magazines
  • Transportation
    • Railroads
compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
  • Over the expansion of slavery into the territory taken in the Mexican-American War
  • Henry Clay comes out of retirement to the rescue
  • Terms
    • California comes in as a free state
    • New Mexico and Arizona will vote under popular sovereignty
    • Slave trade stopped in Washington D.C.
    • Stricter Fugitive Slave Law
      • Negated by northern Personal Liberty Laws
repeal of the missouri compromise
Repeal of the Missouri Compromise
  • Dred Scott case
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • Popular sovereignty will decide if they are slave or free
    • Starts Bleeding Kansas
    • Leads to the formation of the Republican Party
    • Le Compton (slavery) or Topeka(free) constitution
political happenings
Political Happenings
  • Ostend Manifesto: add Cuba to the U.S. as a slave state
  • Canning of Sumner by Brooks
  • In the 1852 debates Lincoln loses but is successful in setting Douglass up as anti-slavery
  • William Walker tries to make a slave state in Nicaragua
  • John Brown’s Raid: attacks a federal armory and plans to free the slaves, made into a martyr
unimportant presidents
Unimportant Presidents
  • Pierce wins the 1852 election
  • Buchanan wins the 1856 election
lincoln s 1 st administration
Lincoln’s 1st Administration
  • Lincoln wins the 1860 election, 1st republican to achieve the presidency
  • Seven states secede the Union
  • Start of the Civil War
civil war battles
Civil War Battles
  • Ft. Sumter, South Carolina: resupply ships fired upon, start of the war, Major Anderson
  • Bull Run, Virginia: Stonewall Jackson is made famous as Union troops flee back to Washington D.C.
  • Antietam, Maryland: part of Lee’s first offensive, blood bath, called Union victory, Emancipation Proclamation issued
  • Shiloh, Tennessee: Blood bath (south can’t keep taking these losses)
  • Chancellorsville: Lee’s finest battle, Stonewall killed
  • Gettysburg: part of Lee’s second offensive, Union wins, turning point of the war
  • Vicksburg, Mississippi: Grant lays siege to the city and it falls near the same time as Gettysburg
  • Petersburg: Grant cuts the last railroad line to Richmond
reconstruction venn diagram anyone
Reconstruction (Venn Diagram anyone?)

Presidential

Congressional

(basically the Wade-Davis Bill)

Similarities

  • 10% take loyalty oath
  • Bars top confederate officials
  • 50% take loyalty oath
  • Bars additional officials
  • Military occupation of the South
  • Must accept 14th and 15th amendments
  • Established Freedman’s Bureau
  • Secession is illegal
  • Slavery abolished
  • Confederate debt invalid
why the switch
Why the switch?
  • The south hadn’t learned anything
    • They reelected confederate officials to office
    • They passed black codes and formed the Ku Klux Klan
lincoln quotes on the test perhaps
Lincoln Quotes (on the test perhaps)
  • Gettysburg Address:
    • Talks about the Declaration of Independence and increased dedication
    • Wants a united republican (read democracy, not the party) country
    • “of the people, for the people, and by the people”
  • 2nd Inaugural
    • “malice towards none, with charity for all; with firmness in the right…”
    • “bind up the nation’s wounds”
    • Says to treat the south well because they suffered too
lincoln andrew johnson s administration
Lincoln/Andrew Johnson’s Administration
  • Lincoln wins the 1864 election but is assassinated soon afterwards
  • Replaced by his Vice President Andrew Johnson
johnson
Johnson
  • Consistently tried to block reform legislation, sympathetic to southern whites, very generous in his pardons
  • Finally congress impeaches him over the Tenure of Office Act when he tried to fire Stanton
  • This end most of his opposition
grant s administrations
Grant’s Administrations
  • Grant wins the 1868 and 1872 elections
  • Administration is plagued by scandals
    • Credit Mobliea
    • Whiskey Ring