theAntebellum Matt and Cody
The age of jackson • Andrew Jackson was a poorer citizen than most other presidents. In fact he was the first to not come from an aristocratic family. • Became a general in the war of 1812 and became a hero figure to the people as he was a common man who became a general and was successful. • He believed strongly in the rights of all men and when he became president in 1828 the belief in the common man was a core tenant in his presidency.
Belief in the common man • As he was a common man to begin with, he connected to the commoners and because they were all allowed to vote now he had a much larger group of supporters to help him become president.
Expanded suffrage • Jacksonians made it so that all men in the united states were allowed to vote regardless of social status. • People now also directly voted for and nominated candidates for different positions instead of having groups of aristocrats decide. • By 1840 90% of white males where allowed to vote
Opposing the aristocracy • Because the commoners were inspired and believed that they had become more equal they began to hate the social elite even more. • Because the entire government and most of America was being engulfed by this campaign in the belief in the common man, privileged people were looked at as snobby and undeserving.
Tariff of abominations • Passed between 1816 and 1828 were intended to protect the American economy but many southern people didn’t like them because they really only helped the north. • Raised the prices of non-domestic goods so that people were encouraged to buy from American retailers • Forced Calhoun to make the doctrine of nullification.
Doctrine of nullification • Pegged by John Calhoun of south Carolina in the 1830s • States can set aside federal law if the state government deems the law unconstitutional. • Gives states more rights and makes it so that they are slightly more independent of the federal government.
Jackson’s veto of the u.s. bank • Jackson was strongly opposed to the reopening of the bank of the U.S. • This comes back to his belief in the common man. • he thought that the bank was only beneficial to those who possessed a great deal of money.
Jackson and the native americans. • Jackson was in favor of removing the Indians in order to expand the American farming space. • This was in accordance with the desires of many southerners which gained him even more followers.
cherokees • The Cherokees tried a different tactic than the other tribes. • they challenged the court to keep their land • Jackson was furious and didn’t officially recognize the trial.
Trail of tears. • Despite the Cherokees’ attempts to keep their land Jackson eventually had them moved across the Mississippi into an early type of reservation. • The trail of tears was the path that the Cherokees were marched on. • Roughly a quarter of the Cherokees died, hence the name
Slavery in the Antebellum South • The late antebellum was the highest point of Southern aristocracy. • Although the landowners owned a majority of the wealth and land, it was their slaves who did the work to bring in the money. • Each plantation had a different set of rules and regulations that affected the lives of slaves. • Without the existence of hierarchies, slavery would have disappeared much faster. • Three parts of slave life that the different plantations affected were: religion, living conditions, and work
Religion in Slavery • Although slaves originated in Africa, Christianity was quickly incorporated into their everyday lives while adding some aboriginal roots • Also, by conforming to the religion of their masters, African rituals and customs were kept alive for future generations. • Examples of these ceremoniously practiced rites were chanting, dancing, and singing. • Whites often believed that Christianity was a way of justifying slavery itself • “One Southern master stated "I am almost ready to acknowledge that the African is happier in bondage than free. At least one thing is certain: nearly all of the free negroes I have seen in the North were miserable creatures--poor, ragged, and often criminal. Here [in the South] they are well-clad, moral, nearly all religious, and the temptations that demoralize the free blacks in our Northern cities are unknown to, and cannot, approach them“.” (document 1)
Living conditions • Although slave owners and enjoyed a privileged life inside the mansion, the slaves and usually lived in small outside homes • These homes usually were made up of multiple roughly made cabins. • Inside these slave homes, black slaves were jealous of but also inspired by the white life that was right next to them. It gave them hope and the will to keep pushing for a better life • Some slaves had some extra freedom and were allowed to plant and manage their own small amount of crops.
Labor • Slave labor on plantations was split between work in the owner’s house or in the fields. Most slaves were given certain jobs depending on their physical ability. • Every slave was given one job each day, and if they finished that job, they could spend the rest of the day doing their own thing • If they accomplished more than two tasks, they were given the following day off. Through this system of positive reinforcement, promises and incentives created a more competitive environment in which slaves increased their actual productivity. • By rewarding slaves for goodwork, owners decreased the worst behavior but bad behavior came with punishment • Whippings, beatings, drownings, and hangings were common.
The cotton boom • The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 by Eli Whitney was not the cause of continued slavery, as some believe, but after its creation southern farmers became more and more greedy as cotton became the most profitable crop in the world and was easy to obtain of you had many slaves. • “In the 40 years between 1820 and 1860, around 2 million African Americans were either forcibly moved by their owners or sold to others in the Gulf states region” (document 2)
New innovations • The Antebellum period was one of the largest innovation times and resulted in new technology and philosophies
Second great awakening • This Second Awakening was lead by preachers Charles Finney and Lyman Beecher. • This “awakening” is actually a wave of religious enthusiasm. • Finney was most successful in central and western New York. This area became know as “the burned-over district” because of the many prayer meetings. • The awakening helped the American man understand the issues and problems of slavery.
William Lloyd Garrison • He was the editor of a abolitionist of the newspaper called the Liberator who was also one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. • In the first issue of the Liberator, Garrison called for immediate freedom of all slaves. • Because Garrison was also in support of women’s suffrage the Society split into rival groups.
Frederick Douglass • Was the most important African American abolitionist of the antebellum period. • Frederick Douglass also believed in equal rights for both women and Native Americans, too.
transcendentalism • A cultural philosophy in the 19th century. • People who were part of this movement encouraged joy in a simple life and connecting with nature and emotions • Basically transcendentalists where the original hippies.
Utopian communities • Since many societies had more free time due to slave labor and a better economy, they experimented with different types of society and government. • Main utopian communities include brook farm, the fruitlands, new harmony, oneida, and the shakers
transportation • To cope with the growing population and economy as well as the need to move things quickly, new advances in transportation were needed. • The invention of the steam engine soon lead to the development of the steamboat and the steam engine powered train.
The Role Of Women In Antebellum America • American women had no suffrage, could not work in juries, or do other civic tasks. • Republican motherhood advanced the idea that women did play an essential role in being a wife and mother. The country argued that a woman’s purpose is to raise their kids to be prosperous. • The republican mother should be concerned only with the household, and her religion.
Factory Workers • The textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts heavily relied on the labor of children and woman. • During the 1820s on 1830s, most of the factory workers were young, unmarried women. • Before the Civil War, Irish immigrants began coming into the textile mills and taking the place of most of the women.
Women’s movement • It was led by mostly middle-class women. • Promoted many legal and educational rights. • It had close links with temperance and anti-slavery groups. • All conventions were held everywhere except for the South.
seneca falls convention • Held in 1848, the convention was organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretius Mott. • The “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions” issued by the convention demanded that women have greater rights. • The convention called for women’s rights in these areas: voting rights, the right to retain property after marriage, better child custody and divorce rights, and equal educational rights.
Conflict Over The National Bank - The constitution says nothing about the creation of a national bank, so strict constructionists (who thought that the government only had the powers that the constitution explicitly stated didn't believe the government had any right to create such a thing. Most of these strict constructionists were Republican. • James Monroe’s Politics In The Era Of Good Feelings - Monroe chose JQA as his secretary of state, showing that he wanted to put an end the Virginia dynasty. He also went on a goodwill tour of the states, and with his presidency, the Federalist Party was gone. • US Expansion Into Florida - Seminole War: Jackson had orders to do whatever was necessary to stop the raids into USA territory by the Seminole Indians, so Jackson used this power as an excuse to invade Florida and seize some forts. Jackson’s raid showed the Spanish that USA could easily take Florida by force, and that it very well could happen in the near future. In the Adam-Onís Treaty, Spain ceded Florida to America, and the US gave up its claim to Texas. • Panic of 1819 - easy credit to settlers and speculators from government banks fueled a land boom. New management at national bank tightened credit, called in loans and foreclosed mortgages. This caused a series of failures by state banks, leading to a financial panic, and a 6-year depression. • The Missouri Compromise - Combined proposed states of Maine and Missouri into one bill. Maine was to be a free state, and Missouri a slave state, so that the balance of free and slave states would not be upset. Also, the land south of the southern border of Missouri will never be slave land.
McCulloch V. Maryland - In 1816, Congress chartered the Second National Bank. In 1818, Maryland passed legislation to impose taxes on the bank. McCulloch, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the bank refused to pay the tax. The Court decided Congress had the power to incorporate the bank, and Maryland couldn't tax instruments of the national government. • Issues In The 1824 Election And The Corrupt Bargain - Andrew Jackson won the popular vote in the election, but not the majority. John Quincy Adams got 2nd place and Clay got 3rd. Because Jackson was Clay's rival, Clay endorsed Adams, and Adams wins. Adams names Clay his secretary of state, a position previously thought of as the "stepping stone" to the presidency. Jackson's followers were pissed that their candidate didn't win, and because they thought Adams was naming Clay his successor they called it the corrupt bargain. • Reasons For The Monroe Doctrine - With all the revolutions in the Spanish empire, the USA was afraid that Spain’s allies would step in, especially France. The USA was also afraid that England wanted Cuba. Based on this reasoning, Monroe wrote the Monroe Doctrine, telling all European powers to stay out of the Americas, because it was US land. • Major Issues In The JQA Administration - Jacksonians were still angry at Adams for beating out Jackson, so they blocked most of JQAs legislature in congress (they still had majority). Adams appointed delegates to a conference that Bolivar called in Panama, but Haiti (black delegates) were going, and southerners in Congress didn’t want white Americans working with black delegates, so congress delayed approving the Panama conference so long that when the American delegation finally arrived, the conference was over. Adams lost to Georgia in an issue with removing Indians, as Georgia ignored executive authority. There was also the tariff of abominations. • Election Of 1828 - 2 parties emerge in this election. The Democratic Republicans, show support Jackson; oppose the "economic aristocracy".
"Spoils system" - The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale. • "Kitchen cabinet" - unofficial circle of President Jackson's allies/friends, who had a stronger influence on Jackson than his official Cabinet. • Removal Act - The Removal Act gave money to finance federal negotiations with tribes, aimed at Western relocation. Jackson had little sympathy for the Indians at this time, because he believed that by providing them with a new home and with money/necessary goods for the first year, he was setting them up for a safer and happier life. • Worcester V. Georgia - The Cherokees went to the Supreme Court and Marshall ruled in favor of them, telling Jackson to stop removing the Indians. Jackson didn't listen. "Marshall has made his decision now let him enforce it." • Trail Of Tears - A forced journey for the Civilized Tribes to reservations deeper in the West.
Indian Territory - a new, supposedly "safer" place for Indians to go from the Trail of Tears so that they are protected from whites, and out of the way of the white settlers. • Elections of 1836 - The Democrats are united for Van Buren. The Whigs can't choose just one candidate, so all 3 members of the "Great Triumvirate" run, hoping the prevent the Democrats from getting a majority vote, which would send the choice to the House of Reps. Van Buren wins by a landslide. • Panic of 1837 - When Jackson was president; many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress. • “Independent Treasury” Plan - Jackson's new financial system to replace the bank. He wants no private banks to have the government's money. Though it takes time to pass this system through Congress, Jackson eventually succeeds. • Treaty of Wang Hya - establishing the first U.S. diplomatic relations with China, this secured Americans the same trading privileges as the English, and in the next ten years, American trade with China steadily increased.
Native American Party - Secret societies form to combat "alien menaces". They originate in the Northeast, and spread to the West and South. Nativists hold their first convention in Philadelphia. • Erie Canal - The greatest US construction project to date, the Erie Canal used stone aqueducts and gates. It was an immediate financial success, and increased white settlement in the Northwest. • Magnetic Telegraph (Samuel Morse) - Using Morse code, the telegraph connected railroad stations. It provided instant communication between cities, however it separated the North even more from the South. • Rotary Press - Faster newspaper printing, promoted newsgathering by wire. • Interchangeable Parts (Eli Whitney & Simeon Bagley) - This made new devices possible, and revolutionized existing tools.
Sarah Bagley - organized the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association in the 1849s. The group petitioned for the state legislature that there was a 10 hours workday • Commonwealth V. Hunt (1842) - The Supreme Court ruled that unions were lawful, as were strikes. • Mount Holyoke (Mary Lyon) – first college for women • Cult of Domesticity - The idea that it is the woman's responsibility to instruct children and counterbalance the their husbands. • Minstrel Shows - theaters where whites mimicked African-Americans.
Short-staple Cotton - this cotton could grow in a variety of climates and soils, making it more effective for mass production • Cotton gin - a machine used to increase efficiency of cotton picking, which could separate the seeds from the fiber • “Cavalier” Myth - The South was more concerned with the refined and gracious lives they lived, where men were tough and chivalrous. With the Cult of Honor the men thought it was their duty to "protect" the women, which just meant that they were really domineering • Manumit - to grant freedom to slaves; to emancipate • Domestic Slave Trade - extremely inhumane. People were treated like animals, and examined thoroughly before being bid on and sold.
Harriet Tubman - American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom. • Gabriel Prosser - in 1800, he gathered 1000 rebellious slaves outside of Richmond; but 2 Africans gave the plot away, and the Virginia militia stymied the uprising before it could begin, along with 35 others he was executed. • Nat Turner - Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery. • Underground Railroad - a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North • Paternalism - slaves were dependent on whites. Because of this, slavery often followed a paternalistic pattern
Contagion - discovered as a cause of disease. By washing hands and disinfecting instruments, infection disappeared, which led to this belief. • Horace Mann - huge reformer in the public school system, who makes education more practical. He also lengthened the academic year, doubled teacher salaries, and enriched curriculum. • Bronson Alcott - founded an experimental school which taught children how to be themselves • Dorothea Dix - a reformer of mental institution, Dix believed that the mentally ill had genuine diseases, and weren't just bad people. She succeeded in improving the conditions of many institutions/hospitals/jails. • Reservations - established to get tribes out of white civilization, and give them somewhere safe to live
Susan B. Anthony - leader of woman suffrage movement, who helped to define the movement's goals and beliefs and to lead its actions • William Lloyd Garrison, Liberator - founded a newspaper. He believed slavery should be viewed/discussed from the slave's perspective. He wanted African Americans to have the same rights as a white man. • Sojourner Truth - United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883) • “Personal Liberty Laws” - Laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves • Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin - abolitionist propaganda/sentiment, became a hero
Document 1 • http://coloradocollege.edu/Dept/HY/HY243Ruiz/Research/Antebellum.html
Document 2 • http://courses.cvcc.vccs.edu/history_mcgee/courses/his121/Lectures/his121ln12.htm
Document 3 • http://www.historynet.com/antebellum-period
Document 4 • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2956.html
Document5 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PunB5vPj2sE • This lecture explains some major characteristics of people from the south. • Are against change • Are a slave economy • Are often emotionally driven and can act without thinking