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21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference- Summary Session. S/1-5.

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summary on iter activities fusion technology masahiro seki jaea rist

21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference- Summary Session


Contributors:T. Nishitani, Y. Kamada, M. Shimada, K. Okuno, P. Libeyre, K. Ezato, M. Gasparotto, J. Chen, X. Liu, M. Hanada, K. Sakamoto, A. Costley, A. Donne, M. Enoeda, Y. Wu, L. Boccaccini,B.G. Hong, S. Sato, U. Fischer, H. Tanigawa, N. Baluc, C. Petersen, H. Horiike, T. Fujita, M. Matsukawa, K. Tobita


ITER activities & Fusion Technology

Masahiro SEKI



Contributions to ITER Design and Technology

 Total 68 papers were presented incl. ITER evening session

Overall status and schedule:6

NB technology:4

Physics & Control:21


RF technology:9


Fueling & Tritium


In-vessel components:11


Contributions to Fusion Technology

 Total 67 papers were presented including 2 overviews.

Material & IFMIF:10

Overall status of new machine:11

Reactor design:11



ICF technology:2


Blanket & Neutronics:14

Plasma Facing components:7


ITER Status and Preparation

  • The ITER Agreement will be signed on Nov. 21st . (Ikeda)
  • The main engineering challenge of ITER is to produce it on time and within budget . (Holtkamp)
  • The site license, to be given for the initial design, should be maintained enduring design changes during construction.
  • Detailed design review is on-going.
  • EFDA, EURATOM-CEA and other EU fusion labs are working on safety licensing, technical studies and socio-economy aspects. (Gasparotto)

The ITER building


ITER Physics

For inductive and steady-state operation in ITER, Phys. Research achieved remarkable progress, and Remaining Key Physics Issues have been identified and requirements have been clarified.(Stambaugh)

Plasma Stability (RWM, NTM, disruption mitigation, ELM mitigation, AE),

PWI and wall materials,

Steady state Hybrid operation scenarios and required heating capability)

Example: Resistive Wall Mode : Critical rotation identified (~ 0.3% of Alfven velocity) (JT-60U , DIIID) and design of control coil is underway.

ELM control Coils

Edge pedestal ( Kamada) and

Divertor (Lipschultz) Physics research has clarified the structure and dynamics of the complex system.

Remarkable progress seen in ELM physics:

ELM cycle has been clarified from the core,

pedestal, SOL and Divetor.

ELM mitigation techniques in ITER have been designed.

Needs for Rotation Control were emphasized.


ITER Operation & Control

  • Electromagnetic (EM) and heat loads at disruptions are analyzed with new


The margin in EM loads is not large, indicating the need of accelerated efforts

in disruption control and design (Shimada).

  • The “search and suppress” scheme of neoclassical tearing modes has been

developed with direct relevance to ITER (Humphreys) .


Superconducting Magnets

  • Major successes have been obtained: LHD magnets have been operated for eight years (Imagawa), EAST magnets have been commissioned (Weng), KSTART magnets have been manufactured and assembled (Park).
  • In ITER (Okuno, Libeyre):
    • Procurement sharing of the ITER magnets have been defined and procurement preparation has been started including fabrication trails at full scale level.
    • Several suppliers in Japan and EU have satisfied advanced Nb3Sn strand requirements. The conductor performances have still to be improved and confirmed.
  • High Tc superconductor is being studied for future fusion devices (Janeschitz).

TF Coils

Conductor: JA, EU, KO, RF,US, CN

Structures: JA

Winding: JA, EU

Casing: JA, EU

Central Solenoid

Conductor: JA

Winding: US

iter vv in vessel components
ITER VV & In-vessel Components
  • In VV and in-vessel components, several detailed design improvements are being pursued to raise reliability, to improve maintainability and to reduce the cost.
  • R&D activities are continued to confirm the design validity and to develop alternative fabrication techniques to increase reliability and to save cost, such as VV sector, joining of Be tiles to FW panels.
  • A divertor integration prototypes were fabricated to qualify the manufacturing process, assembly procedure, and hydraulic test.

Full scale Divertor components

Full sizeVV mock-up (poloidal sector):


ITER Diagnostics

  • A comprehensive diagnostic system (45 individual systems) is being designed.

And engineerign design of port pugs with complicated stuructures is being

progressed (Costley IT/1-5).

  • A number of R&Dssuch as irradiation effects on diagnostic components, and innovative diagnostics development such as a-particle measurement

have been carried out coodinated by ITPA

(Donne, Murari, Orsitto, Hellerman,



Development and Design of NB system in ITER

Accelerator R&D

HV bushing R&D


836 keV,146A/m2 (0.2 A) H-(JAEA: Hanada)

A full-size ceramic insulator



727 keV, 120 A/m2 (0.02A) D-(Cadarache: Bonicelli)

Ion Source R&D

Arc ion source

21s, 3.2 MW D0 injection

(JAEA: Hanada)

Improvement of beam uniformity

(JAEA: Hanada)

RF ion source

600s, 3A(160 A/m2), (Garching:Franzen )

Test in a half-scale of the ITER source.

(Garching:Franzen )

Design of the ITER NB system

-Design of a full-scale test facility

-Design of the alternative concepts for RF ion source and SINGAP



Progress of EC Technology (8 papers)

ITER 170 GHz Gyrotron:


170GHz for ITER (Piosczyk, Litvak, Sakamoto)

140GHz for W-7X (Erckmann, Gantenbein)

2 Frequency Gyrotron for ASDEX (Litvak)

ITER Launcher

Upper port (Heidinger, Saibene, Henderson)

Equatorial port (Sakamoto)








Output Power (MW)





Upper port launcher (EU)

Pulse Duration (s)

Gyrotron: Remarkable progress for ITER

1MW gyrotron :0.82MW/10min./56%

0.6MW/1hour /2.1GJ

Coaxial gyrotron: Fabrication finished.

to be tested at test stand of CRRP

(EU joint project)

EU Coaxial 2MW Gyrotron

Equatorial port launcher (JA)

Upper port Launcher: Proposal of front

mirror steering for effective NTM control

blanket neutronics iter tbm
Blanket & Neutronics (ITER-TBM)

Test blankets are the prototypical breeding blanket modules to be tested in real fusion environment in ITER. Test blanket testing in ITER is an essential and most important milestone toward DEMO.

There are two kinds of blanket concepts, solid breeder (Li4SiO4, Li2TiO3) concepts and liquid breeder (LiPb, Li) concepts with reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels. In this conference, China, EU, Japan and Korea presented their proposing test blanket designs and R&D achievements.

•Design of test blanket and integration in ITER systems are showing significant progress, including safety evaluation for the ITER Preliminary Safety Report.

• R&D on the technologies for material and module fabrication, ancillary systems is showing steady progress toward installation from day 1st of ITER operation.





blanket neutronics neutronics

Be block(100mm)

Beam line

DT neutron source

Blanket & Neutronics (Neutronics)

Li2O pebble (f1mm)



CAD model of ITER 40 ° torus sector (CATIA V5)

Heterogeneous geometry

Conversion algorithms from CAD data to MCNP(neutron transport code) geometry data were implemented into McCad (FZK) and MACAM (IPP China). (Fischer) (Chan)

For the first time, TPR distributions have been measured using pebble bed mockup by JAEA FNS. (Sato)

Also TBM mock-up experiment of the HCPB breeder blanket was performed in EU,(Fischer)


New Experimental Machine (Tokamak)

Four superconducting tokamaks in Asia

  • EAST (China)
  • R = 1.7m, a = 0.4m, Bt = 3.5T, Ip = 1MA.
  • First plasma on September, 2006.
  • First full superconducting tokamak.
  • SST-1 (India)
  • R = 1.1m, a = 0.2m, Bt = 3.0T, Ip = 0.22MA.
  • Fabrication and assembly completed.
  • SC magnets cooled down for charging tests.



  • KSTAR (Korea)
  • R = 1.8m, a = 0.5m, Bt = 3.5T, Ip = 2MA.
  • Assembly will be finished and commissioning will be started in middle of 2007.



  • JT-60SA (Japan/EU)
  • R = 3.06m, a = 1.15m, Bt = 2.7T, Ip = 5.5MA.
  • Conceptual design is in progress.
  • Fabrication will be started in 2007.

Both DN and SN configurations are possible in all four tokamaks


New Experimental Machine (Stellarator)

Wendelstein 7-X (Germany)


  • A fully optimized low-shear stellarator of the Helias type with NbTi superconductor coils.
  • Importance of cold testing of at least one coil of each type, followed by tests in Paschen conditions, is recognized.
  • A compact stellarator with 18 modular copper coils.
  • Fabrication of vacuum vessel completed.
  • 5 modular coils completed with +-0.5 mm accuracy.
  • On schedule for first plasma in July, 2009.

20 Planar coils

nominal current

16kA @ 4K @ 6T

modular coil

Central support ring

Plasma vessel


50 Non-planar coils

nominal current

18.2kA @ 4K @ 6.7T

Machine support



Fusion Material

RAFM steelsremain presently the most promising structural materials for plasma facing components and breeding blanket applications: (Baluc)

  • A great technological maturity has been achieved: qualified fabrication routes, welding technology and a general industrial experience are almost available.
  • RAFMs, F82H and EUROFER97, are ready for ITER-TBM (Petersen, Tanigawa), but still remain some issues for DEMO application.
  • Possible solution for those issues are suggested (Petersen, Tanigawa )
  • Needs of close discussions between designers and material scientists are indicated.

Post-irradiation annealing effects :(Petersen)

Tempering effects :(Tanigawa)

As prep.

Post-irrad. annealed

As irrad.

(Tempering strength)

Annealing the irradiated materials could recover the degraded mechanical properties.

Tempering condition could suppress radiation effects on mechanical properties.




Backplate alternative

IFMIF Project

  • The IFMIF-EVEDA (Engineering Validation & Engineering Design Activities) will

be initiated as a part of the Broader Approach Project which is the EU-JA

Bilateral Agreement (Matsuda, Matsui).

  • IFMIF is regarded as a major element in the fusion roadmap (Matsui).
  • Design of the target and test cell has been progressed (Heinzel). And R&D on

the liquid Li flow target is carried out (Horiike).

Picture of Li flow surface

High flux module

New design of Li target backplate

reactor design tokamak
Reactor Design (Tokamak )




Power Plants (EU)

1) Reactor concept (Maisonnier)

2) Shield (Jordanova)

3) He-cooled div. (Norajitra)

4) Physics issues (Campbell)

5) Transport & Stability (Pereverzev)

1) Reactor concept (Tobita)

2) Divertor (Ezato)

• compact low-A DEMO with reduced-size CS

• potentially economic & low-A merit in design margins

• 5 plant models based on different extrapolations (physics and materials)

• He-cooled divertor ~10 MW/m2




Exp. reactor for physics study (Italy)


Physics design & technology (Coppi)

Physics & engineering issues (Hiwatari)

• proposed in-life upgrade strategy to bridge the gap between ITER and economic CREST

Neutron source

Assessment of transmutation reactors


reactor design helical and icf
Reactor Design (Helical and ICF)



Force Free Helical Reactor (NIFS)

Laser plant design (Osaka U)

1) Neutronics (Tanaka)

2) Operation scenario (Mitarai)

1) Reactor concept (Norimatsu)

2) Laser driver (Kawanaka)

• Progress in design

rotary shutters for protecting final optics

chamber design with cascade surface flow

• Develpment in cooled Yb:YAG ceramic laser

• Developed 3-D Monte Carlo neutronics calculation system

Figure of


3D MC analysis


Stellarator plant (UCSD)

Reactor concept (Najmabadi)


• Structure with three radial builds

(shield-only / nominal BLK & shield / transition zone)

• Plants that have similar size as tokamak <R> = 7-8 m

Chamber wall


21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference- Summary Session

Summary Remarks

• ITER performance prediction, results of technology R&D and the construction preparation have been steadily progressing, which provide good confidence of ITER realization.

• Superconducting tokamak EAST achieved the first plasma just before the conference. Constructions of other new experimental machines have also shown a steady progress.

• Future reactor studies, most of advanced tokamaks, STs or Helical systems stress the importance of high beta, down sizing and steady state approach.

• Reactor technology in the field of blanket, especially ITER TBM program, and materials for demonstration power plant showed a sound progress in both R&D and design.