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21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference- Summary Session. S/1-5.
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Contributors:T. Nishitani, Y. Kamada, M. Shimada, K. Okuno, P. Libeyre, K. Ezato, M. Gasparotto, J. Chen, X. Liu, M. Hanada, K. Sakamoto, A. Costley, A. Donne, M. Enoeda, Y. Wu, L. Boccaccini,B.G. Hong, S. Sato, U. Fischer, H. Tanigawa, N. Baluc, C. Petersen, H. Horiike, T. Fujita, M. Matsukawa, K. Tobita
ITER activities & Fusion Technology
Total 68 papers were presented incl. ITER evening session
Overall status and schedule:6
Physics & Control:21
Fueling & Tritium
Total 67 papers were presented including 2 overviews.
Material & IFMIF:10
Overall status of new machine:11
Blanket & Neutronics:14
Plasma Facing components:7
The ITER building
For inductive and steady-state operation in ITER, Phys. Research achieved remarkable progress, and Remaining Key Physics Issues have been identified and requirements have been clarified.(Stambaugh)
Plasma Stability (RWM, NTM, disruption mitigation, ELM mitigation, AE),
PWI and wall materials,
Steady state Hybrid operation scenarios and required heating capability)
Example: Resistive Wall Mode : Critical rotation identified (~ 0.3% of Alfven velocity) (JT-60U , DIIID) and design of control coil is underway.
ELM control Coils
Edge pedestal ( Kamada) and
Divertor (Lipschultz) Physics research has clarified the structure and dynamics of the complex system.
Remarkable progress seen in ELM physics:
ELM cycle has been clarified from the core,
pedestal, SOL and Divetor.
ELM mitigation techniques in ITER have been designed.
Needs for Rotation Control were emphasized.
The margin in EM loads is not large, indicating the need of accelerated efforts
in disruption control and design (Shimada).
developed with direct relevance to ITER (Humphreys) .
Conductor: JA, EU, KO, RF,US, CN
Winding: JA, EU
Casing: JA, EU
Full scale Divertor components
Full sizeVV mock-up (poloidal sector):
And engineerign design of port pugs with complicated stuructures is being
progressed (Costley IT/1-5).
have been carried out coodinated by ITPA
(Donne, Murari, Orsitto, Hellerman,
HV bushing R&D
836 keV,146A/m2 (0.2 A) H-(JAEA: Hanada)
A full-size ceramic insulator
727 keV, 120 A/m2 (0.02A) D-(Cadarache: Bonicelli)
Ion Source R&D
Arc ion source
21s, 3.2 MW D0 injection
Improvement of beam uniformity
RF ion source
600s, 3A（160 A/m2), (Garching:Franzen )
Test in a half-scale of the ITER source.
Design of the ITER NB system
-Design of a full-scale test facility
-Design of the alternative concepts for RF ion source and SINGAP
ITER 170 GHz Gyrotron:
170GHz for ITER (Piosczyk, Litvak, Sakamoto)
140GHz for W-7X (Erckmann, Gantenbein)
2 Frequency Gyrotron for ASDEX (Litvak)
Upper port (Heidinger, Saibene, Henderson)
Equatorial port (Sakamoto)
Output Power (MW)
Upper port launcher (EU)
Pulse Duration (s)
Gyrotron: Remarkable progress for ITER
1MW gyrotron :0.82MW/10min./56%
Coaxial gyrotron: Fabrication finished.
to be tested at test stand of CRRP
(EU joint project)
EU Coaxial 2MW Gyrotron
Equatorial port launcher (JA)
Upper port Launcher: Proposal of front
mirror steering for effective NTM control
Test blankets are the prototypical breeding blanket modules to be tested in real fusion environment in ITER. Test blanket testing in ITER is an essential and most important milestone toward DEMO.
There are two kinds of blanket concepts, solid breeder (Li4SiO4, Li2TiO3) concepts and liquid breeder (LiPb, Li) concepts with reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels. In this conference, China, EU, Japan and Korea presented their proposing test blanket designs and R&D achievements.
•Design of test blanket and integration in ITER systems are showing significant progress, including safety evaluation for the ITER Preliminary Safety Report.
• R&D on the technologies for material and module fabrication, ancillary systems is showing steady progress toward installation from day 1st of ITER operation.
DT neutron sourceBlanket & Neutronics (Neutronics)
Li2O pebble (f１mm)
CAD model of ITER 40 ° torus sector (CATIA V5)
Conversion algorithms from CAD data to MCNP(neutron transport code) geometry data were implemented into McCad (FZK) and MACAM (IPP China). (Fischer) (Chan)
For the first time, TPR distributions have been measured using pebble bed mockup by JAEA FNS. (Sato)
Also TBM mock-up experiment of the HCPB breeder blanket was performed in EU,(Fischer)
Four superconducting tokamaks in Asia
Both DN and SN configurations are possible in all four tokamaks
Wendelstein 7-X (Germany)
20 Planar coils
16kA @ 4K @ 6T
Central support ring
50 Non-planar coils
18.2kA @ 4K @ 6.7T
RAFM steelsremain presently the most promising structural materials for plasma facing components and breeding blanket applications: (Baluc)
Post-irradiation annealing effects :(Petersen)
Tempering effects :(Tanigawa)
Annealing the irradiated materials could recover the degraded mechanical properties.
Tempering condition could suppress radiation effects on mechanical properties.
be initiated as a part of the Broader Approach Project which is the EU-JA
Bilateral Agreement (Matsuda, Matsui).
the liquid Li flow target is carried out (Horiike).
Picture of Li flow surface
High flux module
New design of Li target backplate
Power Plants (EU)
1) Reactor concept (Maisonnier)
2) Shield (Jordanova)
3) He-cooled div. (Norajitra)
4) Physics issues (Campbell)
5) Transport & Stability (Pereverzev)
1) Reactor concept (Tobita)
2) Divertor (Ezato)
• compact low-A DEMO with reduced-size CS
• potentially economic & low-A merit in design margins
• 5 plant models based on different extrapolations (physics and materials)
• He-cooled divertor ~10 MW/m2
Exp. reactor for physics study (Italy)
Physics design & technology (Coppi)
Physics & engineering issues (Hiwatari)
• proposed in-life upgrade strategy to bridge the gap between ITER and economic CREST
Assessment of transmutation reactors
Force Free Helical Reactor (NIFS)
Laser plant design (Osaka U)
1) Neutronics (Tanaka)
2) Operation scenario (Mitarai)
1) Reactor concept (Norimatsu)
2) Laser driver (Kawanaka)
• Progress in design
rotary shutters for protecting final optics
chamber design with cascade surface flow
• Develpment in cooled Yb:YAG ceramic laser
• Developed 3-D Monte Carlo neutronics calculation system
3D MC analysis
Stellarator plant (UCSD)
Reactor concept (Najmabadi)
• Structure with three radial builds
(shield-only / nominal BLK & shield / transition zone)
• Plants that have similar size as tokamak <R> = 7-8 m
• ITER performance prediction, results of technology R&D and the construction preparation have been steadily progressing, which provide good confidence of ITER realization.
• Superconducting tokamak EAST achieved the first plasma just before the conference. Constructions of other new experimental machines have also shown a steady progress.
• Future reactor studies, most of advanced tokamaks, STs or Helical systems stress the importance of high beta, down sizing and steady state approach.
• Reactor technology in the field of blanket, especially ITER TBM program, and materials for demonstration power plant showed a sound progress in both R&D and design.