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Consumer Concerns About Foods and Water. Chapter 19. Foodborne Illnesses. Leading food-safety concern according to FDA Number of food poisoning outbreaks Most vulnerable populations Foodborne infections Food contaminated by infectious microbes Food intoxications

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foodborne illnesses
Foodborne Illnesses
  • Leading food-safety concern according to FDA
    • Number of food poisoning outbreaks
    • Most vulnerable populations
  • Foodborne infections
    • Food contaminated by infectious microbes
  • Food intoxications
    • Foods containing natural toxins or toxins produced by microbes
foodborne illnesses1
Foodborne Illnesses
  • Food safety in the marketplace
    • Transmission of foodborne illness has changed
      • Errors in the commercial setting
    • Industry controls
      • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system
      • Imported foods
foodborne illnesses2
Foodborne Illnesses
  • Food safety in the marketplace
    • Consumer awareness
      • Guidelines for cleanliness of facilities and safe preparation of food practices
      • Consumer actions when eating out
      • Improper food handling can occur anywhere on the line from manufacture to consumer






Workers must use safe methods of growing, harvesting, sorting, packing, and storing food to minimize contamination hazards.

Processors must follow FDA

guidelines concerning contamination, cleanliness, and education and training of workers and must monitor for safety at critical control points (use HACCP, see text).

Containers and vehicles transporting food must be clean. Cold food must be kept cold at all times.

Employees must follow the FDA’s

food code on how to prevent foodborne illnesses. Establishments must pass local health inspections and train staff in sanitation.

Consumers must learn and use sound principles of food safety as taught in this chapter. Be mindful that foodborne illness is a real possibility and take steps to prevent it.

Stepped Art

Fig. 19-2, p. 651

foodborne illnesses3
Foodborne Illnesses
  • Food safety in the kitchen
    • Keep a clean, safe kitchen
    • Avoid cross-contamination
    • Keep hot foods hot
    • Keep cold foods cold
foodborne illnesses4
Foodborne Illnesses
  • Food safety in the kitchen
    • Safe handling of meats and poultry
      • Environment favors microbial growth
      • Ground meat is especially susceptible
      • Cook meat thoroughly
foodborne illnesses5
Foodborne Illnesses
  • Mad cow disease
    • Affects central nervous system of cattle
      • Similar disease develops in people who have eaten contaminated beef
    • Select whole cuts of meat
  • H1N1 virus
    • Transmission
      • Not by eating pork
foodborne illnesses6
Foodborne Illnesses
  • Food safety in the kitchen
    • Safe handling of seafood
      • Illnesses associated with undercooked or raw seafood
      • Raw oysters
      • Water pollution and seafood-borne illness
    • Other precautions
      • Odors
foodborne illnesses7
Foodborne Illnesses
  • Food safety while traveling
    • Risk of contracting foodborne illness is high
      • Cleanliness standards for food and water
      • Every region’s microbes are different
    • Precautions while traveling
      • “Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it”
foodborne illnesses8
Foodborne Illnesses
  • Advances in food safety
    • Irradiation – “cold pasteurization”
      • How it protects consumers
      • Foods approved for irradiation
    • Consumer concerns about irradiation
    • Regulation of irradiation
    • Radura label
    • Other pasteurization systems
nutritional adequacy of foods and diets
Nutritional Adequacy of Foods and Diets
  • Obtaining nutrient information
    • Nutrition labeling regulations
      • FDA
  • Minimizing nutrient losses
    • Cooking
    • Storing
    • Preparing
environmental contaminants
Environmental Contaminants
  • Harmfulness of environmental contaminants
    • Depends in part on its persistence
      • Lingers in body or environment
    • Bioaccumulation
    • Contamination entry into environment
      • Methylmercury
      • PBB and PCB
      • Interactive effects of mercury and PCB
environmental contaminants1
Environmental Contaminants
  • Guidelines for consumers
    • FDA regulates the presence of contaminants in foods
    • Mercury poisonings
      • Fish and other seafoods
      • Other toxins found in fish
    • EPA regulates commercial fishing
      • Farm-raised fish
    • Potential harm vs. potential benefits
natural toxicants in foods
Natural Toxicants in Foods
  • Consumption of “natural” foods
    • Goitrogens
    • Cyanogens
      • Laetrile
    • Solanine
      • Potatoes
  • No such thing as a perfect pesticide
  • Hazards of pesticides
    • Vulnerable populations
  • Regulation of pesticides
    • EPA and FDA
      • Tolerance regulations
  • Pesticides from other countries
    • “Circle of poison”
  • Monitoring pesticides
    • FDA
      • Collects and analyzes domestic and imported foods
      • May invoke certification requirement
    • Individual state regulation
    • Foods in the fields
    • Foods on the plate
      • “Market Basket Survey”
  • Consumer concerns
    • FDA is a monitoring agency
      • Sets standards
      • Checks enough samples
      • Acts promptly when problems arise
    • Minimizing risks
      • Ingestion of pesticides depends on numerous factors
  • Alternatives to pesticides
    • Rotating crops
    • Releasing organisms into fields to destroy pest
    • Planting nonfood crops nearby to kill pests or attract them away from crops
    • Benefits and disadvantages of using alternative techniques
  • Organically grown crops
    • USDA regulations for organic designation
    • Product codes
      • Organic products preceded by “9”
    • Reasons for buying organic
    • Popular fruit and vegetable pesticide residues
    • Nutritional differences of organics and other crops
food additives
Food Additives
  • Benefits of additives on foods
    • Intentional additives
    • Indirect additives
  • Regulations governing additives
    • FDA regulation
      • Effective
      • Detectable and measurable in final food product
      • Safe
food additives1
Food Additives
  • GRAS list
    • Generally recognized as safe
    • List is under ongoing review
  • Delaney clause
    • Addresses carcinogens in foods and drugs
      • Controversy regarding detectable levels
    • “Negligible risk” standard used instead of “zero-risk” policy
food additives2
Food Additives
  • Margin of safety
    • Allowance in food
  • Risks vs. benefits
  • FDA regulations against additive use
food additives3
Food Additives
  • Intentional food additives
    • Food goes bad
      • Losing flavor and attractiveness
      • Contaminated with microbes
    • Antimicrobial agents
      • Salt and sugar
      • Nitrites
      • Bacteriophages
food additives4
Food Additives
  • Intentional food additives
    • Antioxidants
      • Vitamins C and E
      • Sulfites
      • BHA and BHT
    • Colors
      • Natural
      • Artificial
food additives5
Food Additives
  • Intentional food additives
    • Artificial flavors and flavor enhancers
      • Natural flavors
      • Artificial flavors
      • Flavor enhancers – MSG
    • Sugar alternatives
      • Saccharin
      • Aspartame
      • Acceptable daily intake (ADI)
food additives6
Food Additives
  • Intentional food additives
    • Texture and stability
      • Emulsifiers
      • Gums
    • Nutrient additives
      • Fortify or maintain nutritional quality
      • Examples
      • Appropriate uses
food additives7
Food Additives
  • Indirect food additives
    • Acrylamide
      • Carbohydrate-rich foods and the amino acid asparagine are cooked at high temperatures
      • Carcinogen and genotoxicant
    • Food packaging
      • “Food contact substances”
      • “Active packaging”
      • “Passive packaging”
food additives8
Food Additives
  • Indirect food additives
    • Dioxins
      • Chlorine treatment of wood pulp
      • Human exposure to dioxins comes primarily from foods
    • Decaffeinated coffee
      • Methylene chloride
food additives9
Food Additives
  • Indirect food additives
    • Hormones
      • Bovine growth hormone (BGH)
      • FDA determination related to BGH
    • Antibiotics
      • FDA regulation
      • Antibiotic resistance
consumer concerns about water
Consumer Concerns About Water
  • Sources of drinking water
    • Surface water
      • Readily contaminated
      • Contamination is reversible
      • Cleansing methods
    • Ground water
      • Slower rate of contamination
      • Contaminants remain for a long time
consumer concerns about water1
Consumer Concerns About Water
  • Water systems and regulations
    • Public water systems
      • Disinfectant (usually chlorine) is added to kill bacteria
      • EPA regulates
    • Water characteristics
      • Hard vs. soft
    • Home water treatments
      • Activated carbon filters & reverse osmosis
consumer concerns about water2
Consumer Concerns About Water
  • Water systems and regulations
    • Bottled water
      • FDA regulation
      • Water quality varies
      • Sources
      • Label requirements
      • Handling of bottled water
highlight 19

Highlight 19

Food Biotechnology

  • Benefits already realized from biotechnology
    • Opportunities
    • Possible risks
      • Environment
      • Human health
the promises of genetic engineering
The Promises of Genetic Engineering
  • Selective breeding
    • Slow and imprecise
  • Genetic engineering
    • Rapid and dramatic changes to agriculture
    • Faster and more refined

In the new variety, many genes have been transferred.

Commercial variety




Desired gene

Desired gene

Traditional Selective Breeding

Traditional selective breeding combines many genes from two varieties of the same species to produce one with the desired characteristics.

Stepped Art

Fig. H19-1a, p. 678


In the new variety, only the desired gene is transferred.

Commercial variety




Desired gene


gene isolated

Genetic Engineering

Through genetic engineering, a single gene (or several) are transferred from the same or different species to produce one with the desired characteristics.

Stepped Art

Fig. H19-1b, p. 678

the promises of genetic engineering1
The Promises of Genetic Engineering
  • Extended shelf life
  • Improved nutrient composition
    • Biofortification
  • Efficient food processing
    • Save money and time
  • Efficient drug delivery
  • Genetically assisted agriculture
    • Environmental impact of pesticides
the potential problems and concerns
The Potential Problems and Concerns
  • Consumer concerns with “Frankenfoods”
    • Disruption of natural ecosystems
    • Introduction of diseases
    • Introduction of allergens and toxins
    • Creation of biological weapons
    • Ethical dilemmas
  • Need for evidence
  • Need for close monitoring
fda regulations
FDA Regulations
  • Foods produced through biotechnology or cloning
    • Not substantially different
    • No special testing, regulation, or labeling
      • Current labeling by manufacturers is voluntary