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Lecture 19 Reproductive Systems. Somatic cells (human) have _______ pairs chromosomes Diploid vs Haploid Division by _______________ Gamete production: Division by _____________ Number of division cycles __________ Number of hypothetical resulting cells________

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slide1
Lecture 19

Reproductive Systems

slide2

Somatic cells (human) have _______ pairs chromosomes

    • Diploid vs Haploid
    • Division by _______________
  • Gamete production:
    • Division by _____________
    • Number of division cycles __________
    • Number of hypothetical resulting cells________
    • Ploidy level in daughter cells_____________
    • Opportunities for new genetic combinations from:
slide3

Male Reproductive System

  • Scrotum
    • Spermatic cord
    • Testes
      • Histology
  • Accessory organs
  • Penis
slide4

Scrotum

  • Two cavities
    • Midline seam = ________________
  • Visceral membrane:
    • Tunica vaginalis
  • Muscles
    • Cremaster muscle
    • Dartos muscle
slide6

Spermatic cord

  • Passage from peritoneal cavity to scrotal chambers
  • Extends through ________________
  • Contains:
    • ____________
    • Testicular artery
    • Pampiniform plexus  ____________
      • Function:
slide7

Testes

  • Connective tissue covering ______________
  • Lobules formed by partitions
  • Seminiferous tubules
    • Interstitial cells produce ___________
  • Temperature regulation – how?
    • Muscles:
    • counter-current cooling mechanism:
  • Blood testes barrier
    • Reason
    • Maintained by:
slide9

Sperm production

  • Sperm production: mitosis of spermatogonium  spermatocyte
    • Meiosis: spermatocyte  spermatids
    • Physical maturation:  sperm
  • Blood-testes barrier
    • FSH & Testosterone
  • Nurse cells (= Sertoli or sustenacular cells)
    • Promote and regulate process
    •  inhibin
  • Sperm anatomy
    • Flagella
    • Acrosome
    • head
slide13

Male Reproductive Tract

  • Epididymis
    • Regions
    • Function
  • Ductus deferens
    • Ampulla
    • Ejaculatory duct
slide15

Accessory Organs -

  • Seminal glands (vesicles)
  • Prostate gland
  • Bulbo-urethral glands
slide16

Penis

  • Regions:
    • ____________________
    • _____________________
    • _____________________
      • Prepuce = foreskin – often removed
  • Erectile tissues
    • _____________________
    • _____________________
sperm morphology
Sperm Morphology
  • Adapted for reaching & penetrating a secondary oocyte
  • Head contains DNA & acrosome (hyaluronidase and proteinase enzymes)
  • Midpiece contains mitochondria to form ATP
  • Tail is flagellum used for locomotion
female reproductive system
Female Reproductive System
  • Designed for release of one gamete/month
  • Includes measures for preparation on uterine wall to receive fertilized egg
  • Organs include:
  • Ovaries produce 2nd oocytes & hormones
  • Uterine tubes transport fertilized ova
  • Uterus where fetal development occurs
  • Vagina & external genitalia constitute the vulva
  • Mammary glands produce milk
slide19

What is released at ovulation?

When does meiosis start?

When is meiosis completed?

slide20

Internal Supporting ligaments:

  • Broad ligament
    • Mesovarium
    • Round ligament
  • Ovarian ligament
  • Suspensory ligament
slide21

Ovary Structure

  • Outer layer: ___________________
    • Site of gamete production
    • Gametes formed within ______________
  • Inner layer: medulla
  • Covered by:
    • Germinal epithelium
    • Tunica albuginea
slide22

Oogenesis

  • Occurs within a _____________________
  • Oogonia – 2n stem cell
    • Mitosis prior to birth
    •  primary oocytes
      • Located within _______________________
  • Follicle development/oocyte division stimulated by __________________________
  • Ovulation releases ___________________
    • Surrounded by cell layer = _________________________________
  • Corpus luteum n corpus albicans
slide23

Uterine Tubes

  • ~ 5 inches
  • Parts:
    • Infundibulum
    • Fimbriae
    • Ampulla
    • Isthmus
    • Uterine part
  • Walls - ________________ muscle
    • Peristaltic contractions
  • Lined with _________________________
slide24

Uterus

  • Fundus
  • Body
  • Isthmus
  • Cervis
    • Internal and external os
  • Histology:
    • Myometrium
    • Endometrium
    • perimetrium
slide26

Change in Histology – Uterine Cycle

  • Menses
  • Proliferative stage
  • Secretory phase
hysterectomy
Hysterectomy
  • Surgical removal of the uterus
  • Indications for surgery
    • endometriosis, ovarian cysts, excessive bleeding, cancer of cervix, uterus or ovaries
  • Complete hysterectomy removes cervix
  • Radical hysterectomy removes uterus, tubes, ovaries, part of vagina, pelvic lymph nodes and supporting ligaments
slide29
Hormonal Control of Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles

From Anterior Pituitary

  • FSH stimulates development of follicle in ovary
  • Luteinizing hormone – triggers ovulation

From Ovaries (follicle cells/corpus luteum)

  • Estrogen – preparation of uterine lining for implantation
  • Progesterone – maintenance of endometrium
vulva
Vulva
  • Mons pubis -- fatty pad over the pubic symphysis
  • Labia majora & minora -- folds of skin encircling vestibule where find urethral and vaginal openings
  • Clitoris -- small mass of erectile tissue
  • Bulb of vestibule -- masses of erectile tissue just deep to the labia on either side of the vaginal orifice
mammary glands
Mammary Glands
  • Modified sweat glands that produce milk (lactation)
    • amount of adipose determines size of breast
    • milk-secreting glands open by lactiferous ducts at the nipple
    • areola is pigmented area around nipple
    • suspensory ligaments suspend breast from deep fascia of pectoral muscles (aging & Cooper’s droop)
terminology of development
Terminology of Development
  • Gestation period
    • time span from fertilization to birth (38 weeks)
  • Prenatal period (before birth)
    • embryological development
      • developing human for first 2 months after fertilization is known as an embryo
      • all principal adult organs are present
    • fetal development
      • from 9 weeks until birth is known as a fetus
      • by end of 3rd month, placenta is functioning
  • Neonatal period is first 42 days after birth
    • obstetrics is branch of medicine that deals with the neonatal period, pregnancy and labor
fertilization
Fertilization
  • Occurs as sperm penetrate follicular layers
    • Corona radiata
    • Zona pellucida
  • Fuses with haploid nucleus of oocyte
  • Various mechanisms prevent penetration of a second sperm to egg
  • Fertilized egg is termed a _____________
development of the blastocyst
Development of the Blastocyst
  • A blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells that enters the uterine cavity by day 5
    • outer covering of cellscalled the trophoblast
    • inner cell mass
    • fluid-filled cavity calledthe blastocele
  • Trophoblast & part of innercell mass will develop into fetal portion of placenta
  • Most of inner cell mass will become embryo
implantation
Implantation
  • Attachment of blastocyst to endometrium
    • occurs 6 days after fertilization
    • implants with inner cell mass in contact with the endometrium
  • Trophoblast develops 2 distinct layers
    • syncytiotrophoblast secretes enzymes that digest the endometrial cells
    • cytotrophoblast is distinct layer of cells that defines the original shape of the embryo
  • Trophoblast secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) that helps the corpus luteum maintain the uterine lining
slide37
Ectopic Pregnancy
  • Blastocyst implants outside uterus
  • Possible sites include:\
    • Cervix
    • Ovary
    • Fallopian tubes
    • Membranes surrounding reproductive organs
  • Cause: often impaired passage in fallopian tubes
  • Twice as common in smokers because nicotine paralyzes the cilia
  • Possibly fatal to mother
development from blastocyst
Development from Blastocyst
  • Inner cell mass gives rise to embryo
  • Folding of inner wall (Gastrulation) results in organization of:
    • Ectoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Endoderm
slide39
A multicellular organism develops through a series of embryonic stages  adult
  • Development continues to death
  • Growth – cell division/expansion
  • Differentiation  specialized cell types
  • Morphogenesis – creation of overall form through pattern formation
slide40
Embryonic Induction
  • a change in developmental fate of an embryonic tissue through exposure to gene product (morphogen) from adjacent tissue
slide41
Morphogen:
    • Chemical signals that diffuse from inducing tissues to nearby tissues
    • Gradient formed – cells at various distances respond differently
  • Switch on blocks of genes  direct formation of body plan
formation of embryonic membranes
Formation of Embryonic Membranes
  • Yolk sac
    • site of early blood formation
    • gives rise to gonadal stem cells (spermatogonia & oogonia)
  • Amnion
    • surrounds embryo with fluid: shock absorber, regulates body temperature & prevents adhesions
    • fluid is filtrate of mother’s blood + fetal urine
    • examine a sample of it for embryonic cells (amniocentesis)
  • Chorion
    • becomes the embryonic contribution to the placenta
    • derived from trophoblast & mesoderm lining it
    • gives rise to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
  • Allantois
    • outpocketing off yolk sac that becomes umbilical cord
placenta umbilical cord
Placenta & Umbilical Cord
  • Placenta forms during 3rd month
    • chorion of embryo & stratum functionalis layer of uterus
  • Chorionic villi extend into maternal blood filled intervillous spaces --- maternal & fetal blood vessels do not join & blood does not mix
    • diffusion of O2, nutrients, wastes
    • stores nutrients & produces hormones
    • barrier to microorganisms, except some viruses
      • AIDS, measles, chickenpox, poliomyelitis, encephalitis
    • not a barrier to drugs such as alcohol
  • Placenta detaches from the uterus (afterbirth)
fetal circulation
Fetal Circulation
  • Corionic villi – provide exchange surface at placenta
  • Mother and child blood never mix – but nutrients and toxins cross
  • Umbilical cord – blood route to and from placenta where exchange takes place
path of fetal blood
Path of Fetal Blood
  • Oxygen/nutrient rich blood returns to fetus in umbilical vein
  • Since no oxygen exchange take place in fetal lungs Oxygen rich blood shunts to left atrium via oval opening between atria
  • Oval opening closed by flap at birth
  • Atrial blood shunts to aorta (from right ventricle to aorta)
slide47

Summary of Development

  • 1st trimester
  • 2nd trimester
  • 3rd trimester