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The Mongols. I. Background. The Mongols were nomads from the eastern Asian steppe (fields). They lived in clans (family groups). II. Unification. In 1206, a clan leader named Temujin unified the Mongols He took the title Genghis Khan , or “universal ruler.”. DON’T WRITE THIS!.

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I. Background

  • The Mongols were nomads from the eastern Asian steppe (fields). They lived in clans (family groups).


II. Unification

  • In 1206, a clan leader named Temujin unified the Mongols

  • He took the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler.”


DON’T WRITE THIS!

  • According to legend, Temujin was born with a blood clot in his fist. In his lifetime, his hands were covered with the blood of others. When Temujin was about nine, the Tatars, a rival clan, poisoned his father. When in manhood, he fought and defeated the Tatars, slaughtering every male taller than a cart axel.


III. “War Machine”

  • Mongols were skilled horsemen

  • Use many weapons and learned to use canons from the Chinese


C. Strategy-

1. Mock retreats tricked the enemy

2. Flag signals

3. Terrified enemies into surrender

If a city refused to open its gates to him, he might kill the entire population upon capture

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DON’T WRITE THIS!

Mongol armies used a system of signal flags during battle. The black and white flags sent orders to Mongol units who moved swiftly while overwhelming their disorganized opponents. At night, lanterns and flaming arrows were used in place of flags.


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  • Each Mongol soldier wore a long silk undershirt. When hit with an arrow, he could remove it by carefully pulling on the silk, which usually entered the wound with the arrow. Upon witnessing Mongols pulling arrows from their bodies, some became convinced that the Mongols were superhuman!


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Mongol soldiers often died of infection from battle wounds caused, in part, to poor hygiene. Mongol warriors rarely washed. When they did, they used urine from their horses. Their clothing was often worn until it literally rotted off.


IV. Vast Empire

  • The Mongols conquered much of Eurasia.


Mongolia and China

Russia

Central Asia

Persia

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By 1260, the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates.

A descendant of Genghis ruled each khanate.



V. The Pax Mongolia

  • Mongol Peace

  • The Mongols provided stability and order across Eurasia.

  • Traders and travelers enjoyed safety along the Silk Road.



VI. Kublai Khan Asia.

  • Genghiz Khan’s grandson, who founded the Yuan dynasty in China.

  • He reserved gov’t jobs for Mongols. The Chinese resented this.


DON’T WRITE THIS! Asia.

The walls were covered with gold and silver and the Dining Hall was so large that it could easily dine 6,000 people. The palace was made of cane supported by 200 silk cords, which could be taken to pieces and transported easily when the Emperor moved. There too, the Khan kept a stud of 10,000 white horses, whose milk was reserved for his family and for a tribe which had won a victory for Genghis Khan.


D. Marco Polo, an Italian merchant, traveled to the Yuan Dynasty, stayed for 17 years and interested Europeans to trade more with Asia.


VII. Decline Dynasty, stayed for 17 years and interested Europeans to trade more with Asia

  • Lands were too large and diverse to govern effectively.





Mongol Empire Ming dynasty.

Textbook – page 309

From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003


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