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The Mongols. Rise to Power and Introducing Genghis Khan. Lived north of China in rugged steppes. Called Mongolia Mongol culture encouraged battle . Leaders would assemble and use most of the pop. to conquer other civ’s. Mongols. Warriors mounted on horses could travel 100 miles a day.

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the mongols

The Mongols

Rise to Power and Introducing Genghis Khan


Lived north of China in rugged steppes. Called Mongolia

  • Mongol culture encouraged battle. Leaders would assemble and use most of the pop. to conquer other civ’s.

Warriors mounted on horses could travel 100 miles a day.

  • Used special saddles & iron stirrups allowing them to use bow & arrows with complete accuracy.

Mongol army very skilled in using massive firepower & moving rapidly.

  • Used tactics such as:
    • Bow & crossbows
    • Catapults
    • Pillage
    • Terrorism
    • Human shields
    • Siege

Battle was way of life.

  • Soldiers got rich, power & honor thru battles. Merit system used.
  • One of the fiercest Mongol leader = Genghis Khan (Chinngis)
genghis khan

Born 1162, birth name = Temujin.

  • “Genghis Khan” = Universal Ruler
Genghis Khan
genghis continues to conquer

Genghis & army swept down into China.

  • Captured capital Beijing.
  • Genghis turned west to conquer ALL of Central Asia & Persia (aka Iraq Iran Afghanistan Pakistan)
Genghis continues to Conquer


to be continued….


Khwarizm in Persia attacked for revenge and expansion.

  • Took 6 years. Genghis left Mongols leaders to control area.
  • On way back to Mongolia, Genghis called for family Khurltai to discuss succession…who would rule upon his death.

Genghis had 4 sons by #1 wife:

    • 1. Jochi
    • 2. Chagatai
    • 3. Ogedei
    • 4. Tolui

Jochi died then Genghis Khan died 1227.

  • Ogedei (#3) became Great Khan.
  • Batu, Jochi’s son, invades Russia and conquers into Eastern Europe
mongolian empire

Ogedei Khan dies. Mongol generals & Batuleaves E. Europe, Persia (Khwarizm) & China for Khrultai.

  • This interrupts Mongol conquest…deciding who is Khan.
  • Western part of Europe is saved from Mongol invasion
Mongolian Empire
china prospers

Civil wars stop.

  • Water canals connected rural and urban areas- supplies get to cities.
  • Routes created to connect all of China to India and West.
  • Improved trade, more $.
  • Economic growth.
  • News/message stations created – improved communication to every corner.
  • Maintain order.
  • Contact with Europe.
  • Italian man Marco Polo allowed into China. Documented. Info. spread to Europeans.
  • Unified China
  • Increase exports of Chinese goods esp. silk
China Prospers!

A weather phenomenon that came to be known as the Kamikaze, long before that word symbolized suicidal fighter pilots.

  • If you're now picturing Japan as a powerful typhoon magnet where you have to carefully slip in during between storms, stop. Storms almost never hit the Hakata Bay, and one of the Mongol invasions wasn't even in typhoon season (they hit in the summer, and the first attack was in November).
  • So exactly how small were the odds of the Mongols getting trashed at Hakata Bay? According to Japanese sources, a typhoon like the one that hit the Mongols during the second invasion occurs "once a hundred years or once a few hundred years
you are kidding right

Two storms, in seven years, both right when the Mongols were attacking, and in the spot where their fleet was located.

The Mongols never tried to invade Japan again.

You are kidding, right?
mongols japan

Kublai Khan tried 2X to conquer Japan.

  • 1281 Mongol fleet crossed Sea of Japan. Powerful typhoon struck. Most of fleet sank.
  • Grateful Japanese called the storm “kamikaze” or divine wind.
Mongols & Japan
mongols japan1

Years later, Kublai invaded Japan again.

  • ANOTHER typhoon.
  • Mongols never attempted conquer again.
Mongols & Japan
mongols end

Chinese resented Mongol rule. Large taxes, weren’t equal.

  • Kublai dies followed by flooding& famine&weak Mongol leadership.

…Mongol Empire divided into 4.

Mongols end

China & Korea finally rebelled. Overthrew Mongol rule & gained freedom back.

  • China & Korea revert back ruling own dynasties.
reasons mongol empire fell

Civil war between the 4 regions…war within.

  • Lack of strong leaders.
  • 4 areas developed different. Too diverse
  • Not united.
  • Empire too big to rule.

Slowly but surely, Mongol Empire ceases to exist.

Reasons Mongol Empire Fell