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  1. CSE332: Data AbstractionsSection 4 HyeIn Kim CSE 331 Slides Spring2013

  2. Section Agenda • Project 2: Shake-n-Bacon - More Generics - Comparator - Inheritance review - Iterator / Anonymous class - JUnit Testing & Other Debugging tools • Project1 Feedback • B-Tree, HW2, HW3 question

  3. Project 2 Shake-n-Bacon

  4. Word Frequency Analysis • Phase A: Implement 3 ADTs - Due next Wednesday - Word frequency analysis using different DataCounters • AVLTree • MoveToFrontList • FourHeap DataCount data: Hamlet count: 67 DataCount data: Apple count: 21 DataCount data: water count: 33

  5. Generics Generic Arrays & Wildcard

  6. Generic Arrays • Field & variable can have generic array type E[] elemArray; • Cannot create new generic array E[] elemArray = new E[INITIAL_CAPACITY]; // Error - Arrays need to “know their element type” - Type “E” is unknown type • Workaround with Object[] - Unavoidable warning E[] elemArray = (E[]) new Object[INITIAL_CAPACITY]; // Generates warning, but ok

  7. Array of Parameterized type • Cannot create array of parameterized type DataCount<E>[] dCount = new DataCount<E>[SIZE]; //Error • Object[] does not work - ClassCastException DataCount<E>[] dCount = (DataCount<E>) new Object[SIZE]; //Exception - Arrays need to “know their element type” - Object not guaranteed to be DataCount • Specify it will always hold “DataCount” DataCount<E>[] dCount = (DataCount<E>) new DataCount[SIZE]; // ok

  8. Generics & Inner Class • Do not re-define type parameter class OuterClass<E> { class InnerClass<E> {} }// No  - Works, but not what you want!! - Analogous of local variable shading field class SomeClass { intmyInt; void someMethod() { intmyInt = 3; myInt ++; } // Not the field } class OuterClass<E> { class InnerClass {} } // Yes  class OuterClass<E> { EmyField; class InnerClass<E> { ... E data = myField; } // Not the same type!! }

  9. Generic Methods • A method can be generic when the class is not public static <E> void insertionSort (E[] array, Comparator<E> comparator); - Define the type variable at the method • More generics http://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/java/generics/index.html

  10. Wildcard • Used to denote super/subtype of type parameter • Upper bounded wildcard: <? extends E> - E and every subtype (subclass) of E • Lower bounded wildcard: <? super E> - E and every supertype (superclass) of E • Consider <? extends E> for parameters, <? super E>for return type - The only use in this project is with comparator publicBinarySearchTree(Comparator<? super E> c);

  11. Inheritance Superclass & Interface

  12. Interface & Inheritance • Interface provides list of methods a class promise to implement - Inheritance: is-a relationship and code sharing. • AVLTree can be treated as BinarySearchTree and inherits code. - Interfaces: is-a relationship without code sharing. • FourHeap can be treated as PriorityQueue but inherits no code. • Inheritance provides code reuse Style Points!! - Take advantage of inherited methods -Do not re-implement already provided functionality - Override only when it is necessary

  13. Comparing Objects Comparable& Comparator

  14. Comparing objects • Operators <, > do not work with objects in Java • Two ways of comparing: 1. Implement Comparable Interface - Natural Ordering: 1, 2, 3, 4 … - One way of ordering 2. Use Comparator<- Project 2 - Many ways of ordering

  15. The Comparable interface public interface Comparable<T> { public intcompareTo(T other); } • A call of A.compareTo(B) should return: a value < 0 if A comes "before" B in the ordering, a value > 0 if A comes "after" B in the ordering, or exactly 0 if A and B are considered "equal" in the ordering.

  16. What's the "natural" order? public class Rectangle implements Comparable<Rectangle> { private int x, y, width, height; public intcompareTo(Rectangle other) { // ...? } } • What is the "natural ordering" of rectangles? • By x, breaking ties by y? • By width, breaking ties by height? • By area? By perimeter? • Do rectangles have any "natural" ordering? • Might we ever want to sort rectangles into some order anyway?

  17. Comparator interface public interface Comparator<T> { public intcompare(T first, T second); } • Interface Comparator: - External object specifies comparison function - Can define multiple orderings

  18. Comparator examples public class RectangleAreaComparator implements Comparator<Rectangle> { // compare in ascending order by area (WxH) public int compare(Rectangle r1, Rectangle r2) { return r1.getArea() - r2.getArea(); } } public class RectangleXYComparator implements Comparator<Rectangle> { // compare by ascending x, break ties by y public int compare(Rectangle r1, Rectangle r2) { if (r1.getX() != r2.getX()) { return r1.getX() - r2.getX(); } else { return r1.getY() - r2.getY(); } } }

  19. Using Comparators • TreeSet and TreeMap can accept a Comparator parameter. Comparator<Rectangle> comp = new RectangleAreaComparator(); Set<Rectangle> set = new TreeSet<Rectangle>(comp); • Searching and sorting methods can accept Comparators. Arrays.binarySearch(array, value, comparator) Arrays.sort(array, comparator) Collections.binarySearch(list, comparator) Collections.max(collection, comparator) Collections.min(collection, comparator) Collections.sort(list, comparator) • Methods are provided to reverse a Comparator's ordering: Collections.reverseOrder() Collections.reverseOrder(comparator)

  20. Iterator objects that traverse collections

  21. Iterator • Object that allows traverse elements of collection - Anonymous class: Combined class declaration and instantiation. publicSimpleIterator<DataCount<E>> getIterator() { returnnewSimpleIterator<DataCount<E>>() { // Returns true if there are more elements to examine publicbooleanhasNext() { ... } // Returns the next element from the collection publicDataCount<E> next() { if(!hasNext()) { thrownewNoSuchElementException(); } ... } }; }

  22. JUnit Unit testing: Looking for errors in a subsystem in isolation

  23. JUnit and Eclipse • To add JUnit to an Eclipse project, click: • ProjectPropertiesBuild PathLibrariesAdd Library... JUnit JUnit 4 Finish • To create a test case: • right-click a file andchoose New  Test Case • or click FileNewJUnit Test Case • Eclipse can create stubsof method tests for you.

  24. A JUnit test class import org.junit.*; import static org.junit.Assert.*; public class name { ... @Test public void name() { // a test case method ... } } • A method with @Test is flagged as a JUnit test case. • All @Test methods run when JUnit runs your test class.

  25. JUnit assertion methods • Each method can also be passed a string to display if it fails: • e.g. assertEquals("message", expected, actual) • Why is there no pass method?

  26. Trustworthy tests • Test one thing at a time per test method. • 10 small tests are much better than 1 test 10x as large. • Each test method should have few (likely 1) assert statements. • If you assert many things, the first that fails stops the test. • You won't know whether a later assertion would have failed. • Tests should avoid logic. • minimize if/else, loops, switch, etc. • Torture tests are okay, but only in addition to simple tests.

  27. Naming test cases public class DateTest { @Test public void test_addDays_withinSameMonth_1() { Date actual = new Date(2050, 2, 15); actual.addDays(4); Date expected = new Date(2050, 2, 19); assertEquals("date after +4 days", expected, actual); } // give test case methods really long descriptive names @Test public void test_addDays_wrapToNextMonth_2() { Date actual = new Date(2050, 2, 15); actual.addDays(14); Date expected = new Date(2050, 3, 1); assertEquals("date after +14 days", expected, actual); } // give descriptive names to expected/actual values }

  28. Good assertion messages public class DateTest { @Test public void test_addDays_addJustOneDay_1() { Date actual = new Date(2050, 2, 15); actual.addDays(1); Date expected = new Date(2050, 2, 16); assertEquals("adding one day to 2050/2/15", expected, actual); } ... } // JUnit will already show // the expected and actual // values in its output; // // don't need to repeat them // in the assertion message

  29. Well-structured assertions public class DateTest { @Test public void test1() { Date d = new Date(2050, 2, 15); d.addDays(4); assertEquals(2050, d.getYear()); // expected assertEquals(2, d.getMonth()); // value should assertEquals(19, d.getDay()); // be at LEFT } @Test public void test2() { Date d = new Date(2050, 2, 15); d.addDays(14); assertEquals("year after +14 days", 2050, d.getYear()); assertEquals("month after +14 days", 3, d.getMonth()); assertEquals("day after +14 days", 1, d.getDay()); } // test cases should usually have messages explaining } // what is being checked, for better failure output

  30. Expected answer objects public class DateTest { @Test public void test1() { Date d = new Date(2050, 2, 15); d.addDays(4); Date expected = new Date(2050, 2, 19); assertEquals(expected, d); // use an expected answer } // object to minimize tests // (Date must have toString @Test // and equals methods) public void test2() { Date d = new Date(2050, 2, 15); d.addDays(14); Date expected = new Date(2050, 3, 1); assertEquals("date after +14 days", expected, d); } }

  31. Tests with a timeout @Test(timeout = 5000) public void name() { ... } • The above method will be considered a failure if it doesn't finish running within 5000 ms private static final int TIMEOUT = 2000; ... @Test(timeout = TIMEOUT) public void name() { ... } • Times out / fails after 2000 ms

  32. Testing for exceptions @Test(expected = ExceptionType.class) public void name() { ... } • Will pass if it does throw the given exception. • If the exception is not thrown, the test fails. • Use this to test for expected errors. @Test(expected = ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException.class) public void testBadIndex() { ArrayIntList list = new ArrayIntList(); list.get(4); // should fail }

  33. Setup and teardown @Before public void name() { ... } @After public void name() { ... } • methods to run before/after each test case method is called @BeforeClass public static void name() { ... } @AfterClass public static void name() { ... } • methods to run once before/after the entire test class runs

  34. Flexible helpers public class DateTest { @Test(timeout = DEFAULT_TIMEOUT) public void addDays_multipleCalls_wrapToNextMonth2x() { Date d = addHelper(2050, 2, 15, +14, 2050, 3, 1); addhelper(d, +32, 2050, 4, 2); addhelper(d, +98, 2050, 7, 9); } // Helpers can box you in; hard to test many calls/combine. // Create variations that allow better flexibility private Date addHelper(int y1, int m1, int d1, int add, int y2, int m2, int d2) { Date date = new Date(y, m, d); addHelper(date, add, y2, m2, d2); return d; } private void addHelper(Date date, int add, int y2, int m2, int d2) { date.addDays(add); Date expect = new Date(y2, m2, d2); assertEquals("date after +" + add + " days", expect, d); } ...

  35. Test case "smells" • Tests should be self-containedand not care about each other. • "Smells" (bad things to avoid) in tests: • Constrained test order : Test A must run before Test B.(usually a misguided attempt to test order/flow) • Tests call each other : Test A calls Test B's method(calling a shared helper is OK, though) • Mutable shared state : Tests A/B both use a shared object.(If A breaks it, what happens to B?)

  36. Running a test • Right click it in the Eclipse Package Explorer at left; choose: Run AsJUnit Test • The JUnit bar will show green if all tests pass, red if any fail. • The Failure Trace shows which testsfailed, if any, and why.

  37. JGrasp Debugger Visual Tool for tree/list debugging

  38. JGrasp Debugger

  39. Project 1 Feedback& Project 2 Tips Style Guide

  40. Style Guide • Style Points are 1/3 of your grade!! - Grade breakdown: 1/3 correctness, 1/3 write up, 1/3 style - In industry, you’ll be always working with other people - Readability and Conciseness of code is very very important!!! • Make sure you read style guide - Style guide: http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/courses/cse332/13wi/projects/style.txt - Comment guide: http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/courses/cse332/13wi/projects/commenting.pdf - Java Convention: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/codeconvtoc-136057.html

  41. Project 1 Feedback • Make sure your code compile!! - No correctness point if your code doesn’t compile - Be sure to take out package statement • Comment your code - Follow guide: http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/courses/cse332/13wi/projects/style.txt • Use descriptive variable / method names - If variable points to stack top, name it like ‘stackTop’, not ‘l’ or ‘g’ • Use specify private / public appropriately - Do not just omit this!

  42. Project 1 Feedback • Initialize all non-static fields in constructor private int size = 0; // private int size; Public Stack() { size = 0; } // • Make your code as concise as possible end = end + 1; //    this.isEmpty(); front = this.new Node(d, front); if(front == null){ front = newListNode(d); }else{ ListNodenewNode = newListNode(d, front); front = newNode; } • end ++; //    • isEmpty(); • front = newNode(d, front); • front = newListNode(d, front);

  43. Project 1 Feedback • Use constants for fixed constants private static final int INITIAL_CAPACITY = 10; private static final intRESIZE_FACTOR = 2; • Use Boolean zen if(size==0){ return true; }else{ return false; }// return size == 0; // • Maximize code reuse, minimize redundancy - For example, calling peek()inside of pop() - Using isEmpty() instead of size == 0 // Better Readability

  44. Project 1 Feedback • Use @Override when overriding • Do not leave warning generating code - Unless you know why it is there and why it is unavoidable (Generic array, casting for AVLNode) - Suppress warnings on method/variable, but not on whole class • Avoid inefficient design - ArrayStack: Insert into stackArray[0], shifting all elements • Avoid unnecessary field private int size = array.length;

  45. Project 2 Tips • Take advantage of superclass’s implementation when writing subclass • Minimize casting - Remember AVLNodeis-aBSTNode - AVLNode can be treated as BSTNode, only except when accessing its height information - Consider some private function like (only cast in this function): int height(BSTNodenode) void updateHeight(BSTNodenode)