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Schmitt Trigger Circuits. Op Amps. Feedback Loop. V out. V in. O V. Previously in ET1 we investigated the Operational Amplifier. The Op Amp consisted of V in V out A feedback loop. O V. A Non Inverting Op Amp.

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Presentation Transcript
op amps
Op Amps

Feedback Loop

V out

V in

O V

  • Previously in ET1 we investigated the Operational Amplifier. The Op Amp consisted of
    • V in
    • V out
    • A feedback loop

O V

A Non Inverting Op Amp

It is possible to tell if an Op Amp is Inverting or Non-Inverting by the location of V in. If it went to the positive terminal of the Op Amp then the circuit was Non Inverting and vice versa.

op amps as comparators
Op amps as Comparators

+ 9 V

+ 9 V

A

V out

B

-9 V

-9 V

  • When using the Op Amp in this format we need to consider the value of the Supply Rails it is connected to. The values of the inputs at the +and- terminalsthen determine if V out would be positive or negative.

If A is higher than B then V out = – 9V

If B is higher than A then V out = + 9V

op amps as schmitt triggers
Op Amps as Schmitt Triggers
  • Op Amps can also be made to behave in a very similar way to Schmitt Invertors. These appeared in ET2 where they solved the problem of a NOT gate hunting at its switching threshold.

voltage

time

If a voltage signal varies at the switching threshold of an Invertor it can cause it to burn out.

op amps as schmitt triggers1
Op Amps as Schmitt Triggers

V out

+ V

+ V

V in

V in

V out

V non-inv

Switching thresholds

0 V

0 V

Inverting Schmitt Trigger

  • When using an Op Amp as a Schmitt Trigger we now have to consider both the voltage values at the input terminals and the voltage values of the dual rail supply. A feedback loop is also used.
op amps as schmitt triggers2
Op Amps as Schmitt Triggers
  • We cannot assume that we know which voltage rail the Op Amp will take for it’s starting voltage. We only know that when Vin exceeds Vnon inv then the circuit will INVERT and the output will equal the other voltage rail instead.
  • Thus, we can recognise an inverting Schmitt Trigger by the fact that Vin is connected to the negative terminal.
switching thresholds
Switching Thresholds

Two resistors added to divide the voltage

+ 14 V

+ 14 V

V in

+ - 12 V

V non–inv = Vout x R2

V out

V non-inv

R1 + R2

10 k

V non–inv = Vout x 50

50 k

10 + 50

0 V

0 V

V non–inv = 10

Inverting Schmitt Trigger

  • The switching threshold of a Schmitt Trigger does not have to be the same as the voltage rails available. In the diagram below we can see that resistors have been added to create a Potential Divider. By selecting the correct values of these resistor we can change the Switching Threshold of the Op Amp (the value of V non–inv).
non inverting schmitt triggers
Non Inverting Schmitt Triggers
  • In order to create a Non Inverting Schmitt Trigger you must connect a reference voltage to the input (Vref). This reference voltage is constant and thus the circuit will switch when the positive terminal (Vin) equals the negative terminal. The resistors can be treated as a voltage divider again to make calculations easier.

+ V

+ V

V ref

V out

V in

Vp

0 V

0 V

Non - Inverting Schmitt Trigger