Islam. Islam. Third of the Abrahamic Faiths. Why Study Islam ?. > 1.2 billion followers worldwide > major impacts on world history > key factor in regional, world politics.
Third of the Abrahamic Faiths
Islam is ...Islam is a monotheistic religion begun by Muhammad around 600 CE in Arabia. The word means “surrender”...to the will of god. Islam united Arab tribes, and was the basis for an empire from Spain to India.
Muhammad was an Arab merchant who interacted with Jews, Christians and others as he traveled in S.W. Asia. He founded a new religion (Islam), based on revelations and his teachings, converting poly-theistic tribes to belief in one god, Allah. He died in 632CE.
Ali Ali was Muhammad’s cousin, son-in-law (married to Fatima), and closest male heir. He was the 4th caliph and 1st Shi’a imam, until he was killed in 661
THE FIVE PILLARS-- Creed -- -- Prayer -- -- Charity -- -- Fasting -- -- Pilgrimage --
Shi’a IslamShi’atAli ... “Party of Ali”12 Imams ... most are martyred. ...the 12th [Mahdi] will reappear on the Day of JudgementShi’itepilgrimage sites include Karbala and Najaf in Iraq.
Koran [Quran] -- “The Recitation”... a record of Muhammad’s revelations from god through Gabriel. Begun around 610 CE; written around 650 CE. Similar accounts as the Old Testament.
Dome of the Rock3rd holiest site in Islamic worldlocated in Jerusalemrock where Abraham took Ismail Muhammad ascended toheaven here
Islamic Art Islamic religious artists avoid “graven images” of people -especially the Prophet- and other persons. Arabic writing was developed into the art form of calligraphy. The most popular text is Koranic scripture. Arabesques are repeated geometric or floral designs. Similar to tessellations.
Omar KhayyamPersian astronomer and poetlived during Abbasid period,ca.1100 CEwrote the “Rubaiyat”…quatrain poetryof love and transience of life
"The Moving Finger writes: and, having writ, Moves on: nor all thy Piety nor Wit Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line, Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it.”
661 - 750 CE, begun by Mu’awiyah
Arab control grows togreatest extent...
Spain to Persia
Capital at Damascus (Syria)
lived 661 to 680 CE
1st Umayyad caliph
established hereditary rule
> general who took Muslim forces
into Spain in 711 CE
... beginning 700 years
of Islamic rule in Spain
Gibralter = Jabar al-Tariq (Rock of Tariq)
> 750 - 1258 CE
> founded by Persian (non-Arab) rebels
> capital at Baghdad
> weakened by Turks; ended by Mongols
ruled during “Golden Age” of Islam:translations of Greek works,progress in astronomy, navigation
909 - 1171 CE
begun in Tunisia,expanded east to Cairo (Egypt)
Kurdish general who served as Fatimidvizier, then
staged a coup
Recaptured Jerusalem from EuropeanCrusaders in 1187 CE
711 - 1492 CE
Islamic control of diminishing Spanishterritory until the
Reconquest byFerdinand and Isabella.
unique Islamic art and architecture
rallied Christian (esp. Catholic) Iberianforces to wage
holy war against Islam
Muslim trading network (Dar al-Islam) Merchants could trade from Spain across North Africa, southwest-central-south-southeast Asia using one language, writing, and set of rules..Arabic and Islam.