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A pedagogical framework for teaching English as an international language(EIL). WEN Qiufang National Research Center for Foreign Language Education, BFSU. EIL, ELF and EFL. EIL: English as an international language ELF: English as a lingua franca EIL=ELF EFL: English as a foreign language

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a pedagogical framework for teaching english as an international language eil

A pedagogical framework for teaching English as an international language(EIL)

WEN Qiufang

National Research Center for Foreign Language Education, BFSU

eil elf and efl
EIL, ELF and EFL
  • EIL: English as an international language
  • ELF: English as a lingua franca
  • EIL=ELF
  • EFL: English as a foreign language
  • ELF≠ EFL
the focus of my talk
The focus of my talk
  • A framework for teaching English as a lingua franca or an international language
  • From the teacher’s perspective
topics to be addressed
Topics to be addressed
  • Motivation
  • Two proposed solutions and their problems
  • A pedagogical framework
  • Advantages of the proposed framework
1 motivation
1. Motivation

Who owns English?

  • Non-native speakers outnumber English native speakers

The total number of native speakers ?

The total number of non-native speakers?

slide7

380 million

300 million

1 billion

Kachru’ three circles of English

slide8

Graddol (1997)

    • The center of authority regarding the language would shift from native speakers to nonnative speakers.
slide9
“English as a world language does not ‘belong’ to mother tongue speakers of English alone, but to all those who can make effective use of it.” (Lee, 1981: 1)
conceptual and practical
Conceptual and practical
  • Quite a number of scholars have made a strong argument against taking the native-speaker’s English as a norm for non-native speakers. In their view, we should teach English as a lingua franca rather than as a foreign language. We shoud promote ELF-oriented pedagogy.
conceptual and practical1
Conceptual and practical
  • Conceptual
    • Many people think this kind of revolutionary idea cannot be refuted easily.
  • Practical
    • What to be taught in classroom?
    • How to evaluate our students’ performance?
topics to be addressed1
Topics to be addressed
  • Motivation
  • Two proposed solutions and their problems
  • A pedagogical framework
  • Its advantages
proposal 1
Proposal 1
  • L2 user model(Cook,1999)
vivian cook 1999
Vivian Cook (1999)
  • The language used by successful L2 users can be a model for L2 learners.
  • Treat L2 users in their own right but not imitation of native speakers, deficient native speakers, failed natives.
  • Comparing the characteristics of native speakers and of L2 users is like comparing tomatoes and apples, useful only at a gross level.
tough questions
Tough questions
  • Howe to differentiate successful L2 users from

unsuccessful ones? What are the criteria?

  • How can we describe and define “successful”?
    • Success in using English can be found in various fields, such as business, diplomacy, journalism, and education.
  • Apart from the difficulty of identifying a viable non-native model, there is a strong doubt about the existence of essential differences between the English system used by successful L2 users and that used by native speakers (Gao 2008; Wen and Yu 2003; Yu 2006).
divided views about the use of english in china
Divided views about the use of English in China
  • China English as an independent variety
    • Supporters, e.g. Jiang & Du, 2003;Li,1993)
    • Opponents, e.g. Gao,2008;Yu,2006;Wen & Yu,2003)
  • No empirical evidence
empirical studies examples
Empirical studies: Examples
  • A small-scale study of nativized features in China’s English newspapers (Wen & Yu, 2001)
  • The use of evaluative adjectives in China’s English newspapers (Yu, 2006)
  • The use of creation-and-transformation verbs in China’s English newspapers (Gao, 2007)
empirical studies examples1
Empirical studies: Examples
  • Instead of identifying individual successful users for description, study the collective product, i.e. English used in the official media such as The 21st Century, China Daily, TV script
    • To what extent English has been nativized in Mainland China?
research questions

Develop,grow,make, change, produce, transform, create, build

Research questions
  • What are the linguistic features (semantic, lexical and grammatical features) of the top eight creation-and-transformation verbs (TECVs) in China’s English newspapers?
  • To what extent are the nativized features of TECVs intelligible and acceptable to native and non-native speakers of English?
data collection
Data-collection
  • An established corpus of China’s English newspapers (CCEN), composed of 1860 articles from three English newspapers (China Daily, Shanghai Star and Beijing Review
  • Published in 2002, with 1,058,961 tokens and 20,338 types.
  • Only comprises articles about domestic events from first-hand sources.
questionnaire
Questionnaire
  • Intelligibility and acceptability
    • Five-point scale on intelligibility
    • Ask them to write down what they have understood
    • Five-point scale on acceptability
major findings
Major findings
  • The distribution of senses of some of the TECVs varied in CCEN and NBNC.
  • Semantic broadening and subtle semantic variations are found
  • In regards to semantic prosody, positive senses of the TECVs more frequently used in CCEN
major findings1
Major findings
  • Some collocations more frequent and a few unique
  • Grammatical features: intransitive use of TECVs more frequently, Verb + Noun + Preposition more frequently
major findings2
Major findings
  • Most of nativized English in China’s context can be understood and accepted by both native and non-native speakers of English.
  • Native and non-native English speakers’ interpretations of the verb collocations varied.
major findings3
Major findings
  • Native speakers tend to show higher degree of acceptability than non-native speakers.
  • The nativized features tend to be more intelligible to female respondents than to male respondents.
general conclusions
General conclusions
  • More quantitative differences than qualitative ones
  • Almost all the qualitative differences being lexical rather than grammatical
proposal 2
Proposal 2
  • ….the result of the description of how English is being used in the international context could be potentially used as a model for L2 learners(Seidlhoufer,2001)
  • the assumption underlying this proposal has been challenged by several scholars (Alptekin 2010; Canagarajah 2007; Ferguson 2009).
misconceptions
Misconceptions
  • Function ≠ Product

“LFE is intersubjectively constructed in each specific context of interaction. The form of this English is negotiated by each set of speakers for their purposes.” (Canagarajah, 2007: 925)

“ ELF is an international medium of communication. It has no native speakers and no proper culture of its own to speak of .” (Alptekin, 2010: 101)

misconceptions1
Misconceptions
  • Impossible and unnecessary to codify an ELF but possible and necessary to research the use of ELF
misconceptions2
Misconceptions
  • What to be learned≠what to be achieved
conceptual issues
Conceptual issues

There is a danger that the overemphasis on the nativized variety will move non-native variety further and further apart until a stage is reached where English can no longer be served as lingua franca

many layers of english
Many layers of English
  • At the center
    • The common core shared by all speakers of English
  • On the periphery
    • the nativized features from a variety of cultures which shadow on the first layer
topics to be addressed2
Topics to be addressed
  • Motivation
  • Two proposed solutions and their problems
  • A pedagogical framework
  • Its advantages
common core and peripheral features of english
Common core andperipheral features of English

Native variety

Common core

Non-native varieties including the interlocutor’s own variety

Peripheral features

requirements on l2 learners output
Requirements on L2 learners’ Output
  • Linguistically
    • On the phonological level: allow to have a foreign accent while emphasizing mutual intelligibility
    • On the morphological level: more tolerant of morphological errors but do not encourage
    • On the syntactic level: correct sentence structures (SVO)
requirements on l2 learners output1
Requirements on L2 learners’ Output
  • On the lexical level: more tolerant of mixed use of British and American words: expect to learn nativized lexical words and phrases
cultural component
Cultural component
  • Introduce the world to China
  • Introduce China to the world
intercultural competence
Intercultural competence

Speaking ability

FlexibilityClarifying/Negotiating

Willing to comprise

Tolerance Empathy

Egalitarian attitude

Listening ability

Sensitivity Multi-perspective

Knowledge of dif. cultures

slide43
A model of cross-cultural communicative competence (Wen, 1999)

In a book entitled “Spoken English Testing and teaching” in Chinese

  • Present a paper entitled “Globalization and intercultural competence” at a conference “English and globalization: Perspectives from Hong Kong and Mainland China by the Chinese University of HK in 2002
  • Paper published in English in 2004
pragmatic
Pragmatic
  • Universal rules
  • Target language rules
  • Rules of other non-natives
pragmatic1
Pragmatic

What kind of English will be used here? What kind of pragmatic rules will be used?

pragmatic2
Pragmatic

Open, dynamic, on-line generated

pragmatic objective
Pragmatic objective
  • Abilities to generate appropriate communicative rules and strategies
topics to be addressed3
Topics to be addressed
  • Motivation
  • Two proposed solutions and their problems
  • A pedagogical framework
  • Advantages of the proposed framework
advantages
Advantages
  • Balancing globalization and localization
    • Unlike the traditional view that the native variety is the only norm
    • unlike the radical view that the model is that created by successful non-native speakers or the codified ELF
  • Making a clear distinction between what is to be taught and what is to be achieved
    • Specifying the three components of teaching: linguistic, cultural and pragmatic
    • All the objectives having the same focus, the successful accomplishment of communication in English