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The Late Middle Ages And the Renaissance. The Black Death. loss of 1/3 of European population (mostly in cities) Causes: bubonic plague carried by fleas on Asian black rats; poor sanitation, overcrowded homes, poor health, poor hygiene, poor housing

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the black death
The Black Death
  • loss of 1/3 of European population (mostly in cities)
  • Causes: bubonic plague carried by fleas on Asian black rats; poor sanitation, overcrowded homes, poor health, poor hygiene, poor housing
  • Results: Severe impact on European economy; in some areas workers enjoyed higher wages;
  • Best of clergy died (staying behind to help the sick); Jews blamed; serfdom ended in many areas; first enclosure of fields in Britain
crisis in the catholic church
Crisis in the Catholic Church
  • Early Criticisms of the church
  • Marsiglio de Padua: Defender of Peace – Church should be subordinate to the state Church should be governed by a council of laity and priests superior to pope.
  • John Wyclif (1320-1384): church should only follow Scripture; English translation of Bible; his later followers were Lollards
  • John Huss (1369-1415): ideas similar to Wyclif; nationalist party in Czech (Bohemia)
  • Hussites: followers of Huss who staged large rebellions in 14th century.
crisis in the catholic church4
Crisis in the Catholic Church
  • Babylonian Captivity (1305-1378): 7 successive popes resided at Avignon, France. Damaged papal prestige (esp. in England & Germany); Rome’s economy damaged
  • Great Schism (c. 1378-1417): Further conflict led to election of two popes—one in Rome, one in France; further hurt prestige of church.
  • Conciliar Movement (1409-1418): Council of Pisa and Council of Constance, ended schism; failed as movement to put power in a church council; pope’s power still supreme
hundred years war 1337 1453
Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)
  • Cause—English lays claim to large areas of French land.
  • Three phases:
  • Early English Victories: Crecy (1346) and Poitiers (1356)
  • French reclaim territory and stalemate
  • English victories: Agincourt (1415), French regain lands
    • Joan of Arc: led French army to victory at Orleans during crucial stage of the war
  • Results: France kicks England out; creation of modern nation states begin (“New Monarchs”). Innovations in war technology: longbow, cannon, infantry. Decimation of landed nobles.
northern italian economy
Northern Italian Economy
  • Cities developed international trade: Genoa, Venice, Milan.
  • popolo(middle class) took power in 13th century; republican gov’t short-lived
  • signori (despots) or oligarchies (rule of merchant aristocracies) by 1300
  • commenda: Contract between merchant and “merchant-adventurer” who agreed to take goods to distant locations and return with the proceeds (for 1/3 of profits)
politics of italian city states
Politics of Italian City-States
  • Republic of Florence (Included Republic of Genoa) – Medici family
  • Cosimo De’Medici (1389-1464): allied with other powerful families of Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic
  • Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492): lavish patron

of the arts

politics of italian city states9
Politics of Italian City-States
  • Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) – theocracy in Florence 1494-98; (predicted French invasion due to paganism and moral decay of Italian city-states); burned at the stake Charles VIII (1483-1498), French invasions of Italy; Italy became battleground for international ambitions
politics of italian city states10
Politics of Italian City-States
  • Duchy of Milan -- Sforza family (Caterina Sforza (1463-1509), great art patron)
  • Rome, the Papal States – papacy (“Renaissance popes”)
  • Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Venice, Venetian Republic
  • Isabella d’Este (1474-1539): most famous Renaissance female ruler (ruled Mantua)
  • condottieri: leaders of private armies hired by cities for military purposes
humanism
Humanism
  • Humanism -- Revival of antiquity (Greece and Rome) in literature
  • Individualism/ secularism: “man is the measure of all things”
  • virtú: the quality of being a great man in whatever noble pursuit
  • Education: (emphasis on Latin and Greek)
humanism12
Humanism
  • Petrarch—(1304-1374) “Dark Ages” metaphor; “father of humanism” and

1st modern writer, literature no longer subordinate to religion

  • Dante – Divine Comedy
  • Boccacio – Decameron: aimed to impart wisdom of human character and behavior.
  • Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) Oration on the Dignity of Man; Platonic academy
  • Baldassare Castiglione(1478-1529) – The Book of the Courtier
humanism13
Humanism
  • Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444) – wrote history of Florence; division of historical periods; narrative form; civic humanist; first to use term “humanism”
  • Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457)—On the False Donation of

Constantine (1444); study of Latin

  • Niccolo Machiavelli

(1469-1527) -- The Prince

(1513) – Cesare Borgia

new artistic styles
New Artistic Styles
  • Look to Roman and Greek influences.
  • Use of realistic perspective in depicting scenes.
  • Portrait painting becomes popular.
  • Depiction of Renaissance ideals.
  • New dignity of the individual
early renaissance
Early Renaissance
  • Florence the leader in Renaissance art esp. in quattrocento (1400s)
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) – architect of cathedrals (il duomo in Florence)
  • Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472), architect of cathedrals.
  • Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) -- sculptor: bronze doors for Florentine baptistry
  • Donatello (1386-1466 – sculptor: David (in bronze)
  • Masaccio (1401-1428) painter: nude human figures
  • Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516) – Portrait of a Condottiere
  • Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1574) – goldsmith and sculptor
giotto di bondone 1267 1337
Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337)
  • Considered to be the Father of the Italian Renaissance
  • Broke with linear style of Middle Ages.
  • First to us chiaroscuro.
  • Reputed to be a shrewd and witty character.
  • Praised by the poet Dante.
sandro botticelli 1444 1510
Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510)
  • Spent almost his entire life in Florence.
  • Only significant journey was to Rome to work on Sistine Chapel.
  • Died in obscurity and his fame was not reestablished until the 19th century.
high renaissance
High Renaissance
  • “High Renaissance” centered in Rome (1500-1527) – cinquecento (1500s)
  • Most worldly of Renaissance popes – Alexander VI (1492-1503); Julius II (1503-1513); and Leo X (1513-1521), funded great art projects
  • Characteristics: classical balance, harmony, restraint
leonardo da vinci 1452 1519
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
  • Painter, sculptor, architect and engineer.
  • Often left work unfinished.
  • Conducted extensive scientific studies.
  • Invented the armored tank and designed aircraft.
michelangelo buonarotti 1475 1564
Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475-1564)
  • Sculptor, painter, architect, and poet.
  • Tormented genius who was rarely satisfied with his talents.
  • In painting and sculpture his work focused mainly on the nude human form.
raphael sanzio 1483 1520
Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520)
  • Child prodigy in the world of art.
  • Patronized by the popes and named Papal Architect in 1514.
  • Died of fever at age 37.
printing press c 1456
Printing Press (c. 1456)
  • Johann Gutenberg – spread of humanistic literature to rest of Europe.
  • By 1480, 380 printing presses in Europe (1000 by 1500)
christian humanism
Christian Humanism
  • Attempted to find a balance between religious and secular concerns
  • Rejected the “otherworldliness” of the Middle Ages.
  • Emphasis on early church writings for answers to improve society.
christian humanist writers
Christian Humanist Writers
  • Desiderius Erasmus (Erasmus of Rotterdam) (1466-1536) – In Praise of Folly; most famous intellectual of his times, criticized the church: “Erasmus lay the egg that Luther hatched”
  • Thomas More (1478-1536) – Utopia – creates ideal society on an island; but to achieve harmony and order people have to sacrifice individual rights
christian humanist writers33
Christian Humanist Writers
  • Jacques Lefevre d’Etables (1454-1536): leading French humanist; produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a single authoritative Bible.
  • Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros (1436-1517): reformed Spanish clergy and church, Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition
northern renaissance arts
Northern Renaissance Arts
  • Low Countries (Dutch Republic, Flanders and parts of Germany, etc) produced especially important artists.
  • Jan and Hubert Van Eyck
    • First successful use of oil painting
    • Worked mainly in Ghent, Belgium.
peter brueghel 1520 1569
Peter Brueghel (1520-1569)
  • Focused on lives of ordinary people.
  • Painted great landscapes
  • Also worked on religious subjects
  • Completed most of his work in Antwerp and Brussels
albrecht durer 1471 1528
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)
  • German – foremost northern Renaissance artist
  • Famous for woodcuts and engravings.
  • Paintings include a number of self protraits
hans holbein the younger 1497 1543
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543)
  • Son of Gothic artist.
  • German painter who studied in Italy
  • Painted portraits of Erasmus, Thomas More, King Henry VIII, his wives, and Mary Tudor
domenikos el greco 1541 1614 painter mannerism
Domenikos El Greco (1541-1614): painter: mannerism
  • Painter in Spain (of Greek nationality)
  • Famous for unique style known as mannerism.
  • Subjects depict religious mysticism of the period in Spain
vernacular writers
Vernacular Writers
  • France
    • Francois Rabelais’ (1494-1553) Gargantua and Pantagruel
    • Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Essays relativist in religion and morality
vernacular writers44
Vernacular Writers
  • England
    • Edmund Spenser (1552 – 1599)composed romantic epic Faerie Queen
    • Christopher Marlowe (1564 – 1593) skilled playwright and poet
    • William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) poet and playwright. Wrote plays that best exemplfied the varieties of human experience.
    • Ben Jonson (1572 – 1673) poet and dramatist who created plays in the Greek style.
vernacular writers45
Vernacular Writers
  • Spain
    • Miguel de Cervantes (1547 – 1615) Wrote Don Quixote. Regarded as one of the great novels of the period.
    • Felix Lope de Vega (1562-1635) wrote in every major literary style. Created over 1500 plays, of which 500 survive.