When should we start studying U.S. History? • Investigate the question of when a course on U.S. history should begin, considering the implications of the following dates: 1453, 1491, 1492, 1517, 1588, and 1607.
Essential Questions: What key changes in Europe took place in the 15th & 16th centuries that allowed for overseas colonization? How did European exploration in America impact native peoples? What are the similarities & differences among the Spanish, French, & British patterns of colonization in America?
Why did the “Age of Exploration” Occur? What was the motivation of the individual explorer, conquistador, monarch?
Why did the “Age of Exploration” Occur? What was the motivation of the individual explorer, conquistador, monarch? Materialism, personal wealth Glory, personal fame Religion, conversion of the “heathens” Nationalism, promoting the wealth and power of the nation Scientific Curiosity
The Treaty of Tordesillas • Spain versus Portugal
The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) • Spain secured its claim to Columbus’ discovery. • Spain staked claim to the new world. • Portugal was able to claim what is now known as Brazil.
How did the European Colonization affect Native Culture? New Products Especially Cutting tools, metal HORSES Other new animals & foods!!! Loss of Land Loss of Liberty Diminishing of Culture Language Customs Religion
How did the European Colonization affect Native Culture? Diminishing of Numbers Extinction Example - Taino 90% death rate War Disease Small Pox Whooping Cough Measles Chicken Pox, etc.
How did Native American Culture affect Old World civilizations? Money Three times the gold and silver in Europe Inflation More money in more hands … … More People wanting more goods … … More People making more goods … … Industrial Revolution
How did Native American Culture affect Old World civilizations? Food Corn Tomatoes Peppers Chocolate Pineapples Sweet Potatoes Potatoes *** Health, Nutrition Economic
How did Native American Culture affect Old World civilizations? Medicine Vitamins Anesthetics for Surgery and Dentistry Cocaine and derivatives Muscle relaxants for Lockjaw and Muscle spasms Curare Expectorants for cold remedies Guafenisen Poison treatment Ipecac Malaria “Fever Bark” - Quinine Analgesics Aspirin
How did Native American Culture affect Old World civilizations? Recreation Lacrosse Tobacco Chocolate Government Iroquois Confederacy “Federalism” in the US Constitution
The Horse • The introduction of the horse would forever transform the Native American cultures of the US • Tribes such as those of the Great Plains converted from agriculturally domestic to nomadic within a very short period of time after acquiring and breeding a significant horse population • Following the buffalo herds became the focus of Native society
A World Transformed Native Americans were eager for European trade; they were not initially victims of Spanish exploration They became dependent on and indebted to Europeans Disease decimated perhaps 95% of Native American population
The Spanish used the encomienda system to create large cash crop plantations using Native American & African slave labor Spanish Conquests & Colonies Spanish missionaries focused heavily on converting Native Americans & establishing missions
Spanish-American Culture • The Spanish conquerors would establish the encomienda system • Encomienda – a system of villages granted to a privileged Spanish officer or aristocrat • Was responsible for providing for Spanish missionaries and contributing wealth to the empire • Extreme class discrepancy: at one end were the wealthy conquistadores and at the other the impoverished natives
From Plunder to Settlement By 1650, 1/2 million Spaniards immigrated to the New World Mostly unmarried males came to New World; intermarriage led to mixed-bloodmestizos&mulattos Distinguished between social classes: peninsulares & creoles The Spanish government operated strict control over the colonies Whites from Spain Whites born in America
Spanish Empire • Its conquering of the Americas would allow Spain to become the most powerful empire in the world during the 16th Century • “We came here to serve God and King… and to get rich” • Known as “GOD, GLORY, & GOLD!” • Not only disease, but civil wars and religious superstitions also allowed the Europeans, namely the Spanish, to conquer the Native Americans (who GREATLY outnumbered the explorers) • The advanced technology of the Europeans offered an incredible advantage in combat • Gunpowder, cannon, and bullets vs. bows and arrows • Horses (transport and cavalry) and also pigs, cattle, and goats (foodstuffs) played a very important role in conquest
The Spread of Catholicism • Catholic missionaries quickly spread to the Americas in the wake of the conquistadors’ victories • The Natives were viewed as pagans and the Catholic religion was in turn imposed upon the people • The spreading epidemics were seen as the wrath of God upon the pagans and justified the actions of the god-fearing Spanish • A few missionaries would become the only advocates that the Natives had among the Europeans • Bartolome de la Casas and A Brief Relation of the Destruction of the Indies • Poet Staceyann Chin reads Bartolomé de Las Casas
Sepulveda vs. Cases • What differences does Sepulveda emphasize between Europeans (especially Spaniards) and the Indians? • How does he assert the superiority of European culture? • How are Casas views of the Indians different from those of Sepulveda?
Spanish Exploration of the US • Spain would never develop successful settlements (in terms of trade and power) in US territory mainly due to its primary lust for gold and silver instead of developing centers of trade • Juan Ponce de Leon – explored Florida • Hernando de Soto – explored the Southeast US • Francisco Coronado – explored the Southwest US • St. Augustine – the oldest surviving settlement in the US, established in 1565 in Florida • Spanish missions would dot the Southwest US with some surviving today • Santa Fe was the 1st permanent seat of government in the US • By 1630 there were over 50 missions and 3,000 Spanish in the New Mexico territory
Pope’s Rebellion • The Roman Catholic mission became the central institution in colonial New Mexico until the missionaries’ efforts to suppress native religious customs provoked an Indian uprising. • Pope’s Rebellion or the Pueblo Revolt • 1680 • The Pueblo rebels destroyed every Catholic church & killed priests and settlers. • Pueblo people overthrew Spanish rule for 12 years & weakened Spain’s grasp on the region for years to come.
The French Claim Canada • In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec • French Empire eventually included: • St. Lawrence River • Great Lakes • Mississippi River Valley • The French government strictly controlled the colonies but made little effort to encourage settlement
The French Claim Canada • Fur trade was the basis of the French colonial economy • Indians became valued trading partners • They had a good relationship with the Natives
Like Spain, the French gov’t encouraged converting Native Americans & establishing missions