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Nucleic Acids. Nucleic Acids Structures of Nucleic Acids DNA Replication RNA and Transcription. Nucleotides. Nucleic acids consist of nucleotides that have a sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate nucleoside . Base. PO 4. Sugar. Nitrogen-Containing Bases. Sugars.

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nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids

Nucleic Acids

Structures of Nucleic Acids

DNA Replication

RNA and Transcription

nucleotides
Nucleotides

Nucleic acids consist of nucleotides that have a sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate

nucleoside

Base

PO4

Sugar

nucleosides in dna
Nucleosides in DNA

Base Sugar Nucleoside

Adenine (A) Deoxyribose Adenosine

Guanine (G) Deoxyribose Guanosine

Cytosine (C) Deoxyribose Cytidine

Thymine (T) Deoxyribose Thymidine

nucleosides in rna
Nucleosides in RNA

Base Sugar Nucleoside

Adenine (A) ribose Adenosine

Guanine (G) ribose Guanosine

Cytosine (C) ribose Cytidine

Uracil (U) ribose Uridine

nucleotides in dna and rna
Nucleotides in DNA and RNA

DNA

dAMP Deoxyadenosine monophosphate

dGMP Deoxyguanosine monophosphate

dCMP Deoxycytidine monophosphate

dTMP Deoxythymidine monophosphate

RNA

AMP adenosine monophosphate

GMP guanosine monophosphate

CMP cytidine monophosphate

UMP uridine monophosphate

structure of nucleic acids
Structure of Nucleic Acids
  • Polymers of four nucleotides
  • Linked by alternating sugar-phosphate bonds
  • RNA: ribose and A, G, C, U
  • DNA: deoxyribose and A,G,C,T

nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide

base

base

base

base

sugar

sugar

P

sugar

P

sugar

P

P

nucleic acid structure
Nucleic Acid Structure

3,5-phosphodiester bond

3

5

double helix of dna
Double Helix of DNA
  • DNA contains two strands of nucleotides
  • H bonds hold the two strands in a double-helix structure
  • A helix structure is like a spiral stair case
  • Bases are always paired as A–T and G-C
  • Thus the bases along one strand complement the bases along the other
complementary base pairs
Complementary Base Pairs
  • Two H bonds for A-T
  • Three H bonds for G-C
learning check na1
Learning Check NA1

Write the complementary base sequence for the matching strand in the following DNA section:

-A-G-T-C-C-A-A-T-G-C-

• • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • •

solution na1
Solution NA1

Write the complementary base sequence for the matching strand in the following DNA section:

-A-G-T-C-C-A-A-T-G-C-

• • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • •

-T-C-A-G-G-T-T-A-C-G-

dna replication
DNA Replication
  • DNA in the chromosomes replicates itself every cell division
  • Maintains correct genetic information
  • Two strands of DNA unwind
  • Each strand acts like a template
  • New bases pair with their complementary base
  • Two double helixes form that are copies of original DNA
dna unwinds
DNA Unwinds

G- -C

A- -T

C- -G

T- -A

G-C

A-T

C-G

T-A

dna copied with base pairs
DNA Copied with Base Pairs

Two copies of original DNA strand

G-C G-C

A-T A-T

C-G C-G

T-A G-A