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How can we save energy? Provide services only when and where required at the optimum levels utilizing efficient energy conversion Provide services only when needed Turning stuff off when it’s not required Lights Boilers Cooling towers Air handling units Chillers HVAC systems

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Provide services only when and where required at the optimum levels utilizing efficient energy conversion
provide services only when needed
Provide services only when needed
  • Turning stuff off when it’s not required

Lights

Boilers

Cooling towers

Air handling units

Chillers

HVAC systems

Pumps

Computers and monitors

Machinery

Compressed air

providing services on demand
Providing services on demand
  • Tie cooling towers operation to the equipment it supports
  • Control HVAC fans by monitoring static air pressure
  • Vary lighting levels for current work requirement
  • Occupancy sensors
  • http://lbenergymanagement.web.boeing.com/db/BoeingLB/HVAC/Bldg_802/FloorPlans/Map_802_1WNE_Maint
  • Limit occupied schedules and allow occupants to override for after hours work http://lbenergymanagement.web.boeing.com/db/BoeingLB/Lighting/Bldg_41A/Floor3/Floorplan
  • Control boilers by monitoring demand
  • http://lbenergymanagement.web.boeing.com/db/BoeingLB/HVAC/Bldg_81/ChilledWater/Graphic
provide services at minimum required levels
Provide services at minimum required levels
  • Lighting
  • Hot water temperature
  • Chilled water temperature
  • HVAC cold deck temperature (supply air reset)
  • Compressed air
  • Space temperatures
  • Fan speed (reduce using variable frequency drives)
  • Task lighting
  • Outside air (ventilation) control by using CO2 sensors for theaters, cafeterias
  • Off hours ventilation air, reset requirements for after hours, weekends and holidays
using equipment with efficient energy transfer
Using equipment with efficient energy transfer
  • Lighting
  • Radiant heating in lieu of convection heating
  • Compressors
  • Boilers
  • HVAC systems
  • Motors
  • Compressed air systems
  • Computer monitors (LCD vs. CRT)
  • Self luminous exit signs
  • Electric fans vs. Copus units
  • Direct drive vs. belt drive
using the environment to save energy
Using the environment to save energy
  • Outside air for cooling / heating when practical (economizer cycle)
  • Sunlight when practical (Daylight Harvesting)
  • Reflective floors to increase light level
  • Solar power
reduce energy loss
Reduce energy loss
  • Insulation
  • Reduce loss through piping runs (distributed systems)
  • Clean lighting lenses, fixtures
  • Air leaks (Air Leaks in a typical plant will make up approximately 20-30% of the total compressed air system demand). A single ¼” leak costs approximately $8,000 per year.
  • Window glazing
  • Filters (condition based vs. scheduled)
  • Running equipment outside of their efficient ranges (motors, compressors, chillers)
  • Adjacent HVAC zones fighting each other (1 in cooling and 1 in heating)
  • Reheating air in HVAC systems
load shifting
Load shifting
  • Chilled water storage
    • Does it save energy?
      • No, but it significantly reduces costs by shifting energy use to off-peak times
how does the energy team function
How does the energy team function?
  • The team:
  • Brainstorms ideas to reduce energy – solicits ideas from co-workers
  • Performs estimates for energy savings projections and implementation costs
  • Eliminates ideas with poor business cases
  • Totem poles remaining projects prioritizing projects with the highest return on investment, projects with the greatest energy saving potential and projects with low costs for implementation
energy team continued
Energy team continued
  • Creates business cases for top candidates
  • Presents our recommendations to management
  • Implements the projects
  • Tracks energy and dollar savings
  • Continues down the list using the same process while constantly looking for new savings opportunities
  • Performs energy audits
questions
Questions
  • Does an energy management system save money?
  • Does an energy management system provide maximum efficiency on the day it’s commissioned?
  • Does an energy management system reduce the requirement for maintenance?
  • When is it a disadvantage to install economizer?
  • When should we do load shedding?
  • Are all control strategies created equal? Examples - supply air temperature reset, economizer
answers
Answers
  • Does an energy management system save energy?
    • No, it’s the control strategies that are implemented with the energy management system that saves energy.
  • Does an energy management system provide maximum efficiency on the day it’s commissioned?
    • No, typically the integrator will not spend the time to tweak the system for maximum efficiency.
answers continued
Answers continued
  • Does an energy management system reduce the requirement for maintenance?
    • No, energy management systems can significantly reduce the time to troubleshoot problems butwith additional controls to maximize energy savings it becomes even more critical to maintain the systems properly.
  • When is it a disadvantage to install economizer?
    • When it’s not maintained.
answers continued15
Answers continued
  • When should we do load shedding?
    • All the time
    • Examples daylight harvesting, cold water, ice storage, control outside (ventilation) air by using CO2 sensors for theaters, cafeterias, ice skating rinks, bowling alleys
  • Are all control strategies created equal? Examples supply air temperature reset, economizer
    • No
are all control strategies created equal example 1
Are all control strategies created equal? Example 1
  • Supply air temperature reset using return air temp
  • Supply air temp reset using outside air temp
  • Supply air temp reset using average VAV box demand
  • Supply air temp reset using highest VAV box demand
  • Supply air temp reset using average or highest VAV box demand (selectable)
  • Adding humidity control
are all control strategies created equal example 2
Are all control strategies created equal? Example 2
  • Economizer (dry bulb)
  • Economizer utilizing enthalpy
  • Economizer using enthalpy and humidity control
  • adding low temp lockout
  • adding high humidity lockout
look for low hanging fruit
Look for low hanging fruit
  • Turning on and off equipment that runs constantly. Scheduling the equipment for 9 hours a day operation Monday through Friday reduces energy usage by 74%. In addition it extends the life of the equipment and reduces maintenance costs.