Hurricane Katrina • 1,833 People Killed • 1,960 Missing Persons • 245 Missing Persons Under 20 Years Old • 93,000 Square Miles Affected (more than the size of Great Britain) • 850,791 Houses Destroyed • 900 Churches, Synagogues, Mosques Destroyed • $2,000,000,000.00 in Cleanup Costs
What is Emergency Preparedness? • The preparation and planning necessary to effectively handle an emergency. It involves an emergency plan that should: • identify required services; • list needed resources to have on hand; and • be written/given to loved ones, care givers and other relevant parties.
Recognition of a potential emergency situation • Ask yourself questions that will help you recognize risky situations or the possibility of an emergency or accident occurring. • Do I live in an area that experiences dangerous weather (hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards)? During what time of the year? • Is my area prone to earthquakes or flooding? • Is my family car in good working order? • Are any of the electrical outlets overloaded with too many plugs? • Are materials that burn easily (those that are flammable), such as charcoal lighter fluid, stored safely? • Is food properly refrigerated, stored, and prepared in my home?
Prevention of an emergency situation • Ask yourself questions that will help you prevent a dangerous situation or emergency when you can. • What can I do to make my home safer from fire or explosion? • How can I help minimize or lessen, the damage that might be caused during an emergency (violent weather, for instance)? Can I help make sure that no one would be injured? • Can I help make sure that people are behaving safely during a situation, say, when I’m hiking in the wilderness with my troop?
Reaction to an emergency situation • Ask yourself questions that will help you react to an emergency situation in the best way you can. • How can I prepare before a crisis? • Can I gather and position supplies that might be needed? • Can I help educate and train people about safety and preparedness? • How can I react after a crisis? • Is there a family or community plan for reaction that I should know about? • What resources might be mobilized and needed, and how can I help?
What is the definition of an emergency rescue? Rescue - the act of removing someone from danger. Emergency Rescue - a technical term for a rescue taking place under hazardous circumstances with high risk to the rescue personnel, but which must be done immediately to save a person's life. In this type of scenario to say a person is in immediate danger may be understated, normally if not removed from their circumstance as quickly as possible the victim will die quite soon. Technical rescues and rescue are descriptive of many types of circumstances, in all cases the victim is in danger. A cat up a tree or an otherwise uninjured person stuck in a crashed car are not likely to die in moments but will need to be rescued from their circumstance by someone with the means and skill to do so.
Touching a live electric wire • Don’t touch anyone who is in contact with a power source. The electricity causes the victim’s muscles to contract, preventing them from letting go of the appliance or wire. If you touch the person, you can become electrocuted too. • Shut off the main power supply or unplug the defective appliance. • If you must remove the victim from the electrical source, use something made of a material that doesn’t conduct electricity, such as wood (for example, a broom handle). Make sure your hands and clothes are dry and you’re not standing in any water. • Use extreme caution; you don’t want to become a victim yourself! • Call emergency medical services. • Once the victim is detached from the electrical source, check the person’s breathing and pulse. If you’re trained to do so, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or CPR if needed.
A room with carbon monoxide First aid for carbon monoxide poisoning is to immediately remove the victim from the exposure without endangering oneself, call for help, and begin CPR if needed. The main medical treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning is breathing 100% oxygen by a tight fitting oxygen mask. Oxygen hastens the dissociation of carbon monoxide from hemoglobin, improving by reducing its biological half-life. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include listlessness, depression, dementia, emotional disturbances, and hallucinations. Prevention remains a vital public health issue, requiring public education on the safe operation of appliances, heaters, fireplaces, and internal-combustion engines, as well as increased emphasis on the installation of carbon monoxide detectors. Carbon monoxide alarms are usually installed in homes around heaters and other equipment. If a high level of CO is detected, the device sounds an alarm, giving people in the area a chance to ventilate the area or safely leave the building.
Drowning Rescue • Unless you have been trained to properly do so, avoid swimming to the assistance of a person who is drowning. A drowning non-swimmer is typically in a panic, and may grab onto anyone or anything he can reach in an effort to support their airway above the surface of the water. If the victim submerges the rescuer, the rescuer's life is endangered and the original victim has nobody to assist them. • Instead of entering the water, do one of the following: • Talk the victim in; coach them to kick their legs • Throw life ring, life jacket, or some other flotation device to the victim • Reach an item such as a rope, pole, oar, or paddle to the victim, and once the victim grabs it, pull them in • Wade into shallow water attempt the above • Row out to the victim in a boat, or use powered craft if possible; try the above from in the boat
An Ice Accident • The first rule of performing an ice rescue is to not run out to the victim. Remember, the ice was not strong enough to hold one person, so it is very unlikely that it will hold you. • Before you do anything, call 911. Use a cell phone, or send someone else to make the call. • Reassure the victim. Tell him/her to remain calm, that you are aware of his predicament, and that you are going to help. • Reach out with your arm. Then see if there is anything long enough (tree branches, paddles, oars, shovels, ladders, etc. with which you can reach the victim. • Throw a line. If you cannot find anything long enough, look for a rope or a rope-like item such as a garden hose or jumper cables. While holding one end of the rope, throw the other end to the victim. • Last Resort - go to the victim. • As a last resort you may have to venture out onto the ice. But don't just walk out there. Lay a ladder on the ice and walk on it. This will distribute your weight over a greater area of the ice, decreasing the chances of another break. When you get to the end of the ladder, roll off onto the ice. Laying next to the ladder, scoot it out farther. If the ladder still does not reach the victim, get back on it and continue. Do this until you can extend the ladder to the victim. • If you cannot find a large object such as a ladder, take something else - anything. You'll need something to reach out to the victim with so you do not have to go all the way to the edge of the ice hole. This could be your coat or a blanket, for example. Lay down on the ice to distribute your weight over a larger area. Scoot over to the victim, and stretch out the item you brought with you, trying to keep your body as far from the edge of the hole as possible. Try to pull victim to safety. Once you get the victim to shore, begin treatment for hypothermia immediately.
Three ways of attracting and communicating with rescue aircraft. Make a distress signal Make a distress signal on the ground by piling rocks, branches, or other debris to form large letters spelling "S.O.S," the universally recognized signal for help. Use materials that contrast with the surrounding environment. In winter, you may be able to stomp an SOS into the snow. Make the letters read from east to west (or west to east) so that the shadows catch the letters better. Light three fires You may also light three fires to signal for help. Build them either in a line or in a triangle, and get them good and hot. When you see a rescue plane during daylight hours, add green plant matter to the flames. This should cause thick smoke. Be careful to not extinguish the fire by doing this. Signaling mirror The emergency signaling mirror is approximately 3 by 5 inches and consists of an aluminized reflecting glass mirror, a back cover glass, and a sighting device. It is used to attract the attention of passing aircraft or ships by reflection, either in sunlight or in hazy weather. The reflections of this shatterproof mirror can be seen at a distance of 30 miles at an altitude of 10,000 feet. Though less effective, and with possible shorter range, mirror flashes can also be seen on cloudy days with limited visibility. To use the mirror, proceed as follows: Punch a cross-hole in its center. Hold the mirror about 3 inches in front of your face and sight through the cross-hole at the ship or aircraft. The spot of light shining through the hole onto your face will be seen in the cross-hole. While keeping a sight on the ship or aircraft, adjust the mirror until the spot of light on your face disappears in the hole. The bright spot, seen through the sight, will then be aimed directly at the search ship or aircraft.
Carrying a Victim • With the pack-strap carry, it is possible to carry a heavy person for some distance. Use the following procedure: • Place the casualty in a supine position. • Lie down on your side along the casualty’s uninjured or less injured side, with your shoulder next to the casualty’s armpit. • Pull the casualty’s far leg over your own, holding it there if necessary. • Grasp the casualty’s far arm at the wrist and bring it over your upper shoulder as you roll and pull the casualty onto your back. • Raise up your knees, holding your free arm for balance and support. Hold both the casualty’s wrists close against your chest with your other hand. • Lean forward as you rise to your feet, and keep both of your shoulders under the casualty’s armpits. Do not attempt to carry a seriously injured person by means of the pack-strap carry.
Two rescuers can also remove a victim by seating him or her on a chair: Rescuer 1: Facing the back of the chair, grasp the back uprights. Rescuer 2: Facing away from the victim, reach back and grasp the two front legs of the chair. Both rescuers: Tilt the chair back, lift, and walk out. A.The shorter bearer spreads the casualty's legs, kneels between the legs with his back to the casualty, and positions his hands behind the casualty's knees. The taller bearer kneels at the casualty's head, slides his hands under the arms and across the chest, and locks his hands. B. The bearers rise together, lifting the casualty. C Alternate position, facing casualty.
Crowd and Traffic Control Scouts in the past have helped police and fire departments, emergency management officials, and the Red Cross handle crowd and traffic control. Today, it is felt that Scouts should do this only at official Boy Scouts of America functions. In any case, crowd and traffic control must be done under the supervision of officials in charge of the situation. Each member of a crowd control crew needs a staff about two (2) inches in diameter and six (6) feet long. To move a crowd back, crew members hold the staff horizontally at chest height and advance slowly toward the crowd. To keep the crowd back, form a chain with your staffs. To direct the movement of a crowd, indicate direction by pointing or blocking the way. During daylight hours, a fluorescent or reflective vest should be worn. After dark every member of a crowd control crew should wear a reflective vest or high visibility material on the right ankle and arm.
Messenger Service and Communications Providing messenger service during an emergency takes planning. Your BSA council, along with other community organizations, will assign a service area to your troop, usually near your meeting place. Your troop should make a large-scale map of the area and assign sections to each patrol. Each patrol then prepares its own sectional map and learns it inside-out. Get to know short cuts, easiest routes, dead end streets, traffic blocks, and trails that will help you get from one point to another during an emergency. Bikes can speed up delivery but must be in top condition for a reliable messenger service. Cyclists must also know and practice bicycle safety at all times. In some areas, older Scouts and leaders may deliver messages by car, snowmobile, boat, horse, or skis. During emergencies, each messenger should carry a flashlight, personal first aid kit, pencil, paper, map, pocket knife, and money. After delivering a written message, get a written receipt and return it with any answer to the sender. Scouts might deliver messages within a control center during emergencies, freeing adults for other work. Troops can also help with communications. If telephones are working, Scouts can act as operators, taking incoming calls and relaying information to officials in charge. If phones don’t work, signal teams might be set up, with four Scouts to a team. One Scout acts as a team chief and observer, another as the signaler, the third as the recorder, and the fourth as the messenger. Some Scouts and leaders specialize in radio communications. Some are qualified as amateur radio operators, Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) operators for emergency situations, or citizens band (CB) operators. CB units can consult and coordinate with local emergency management organizations such as the Red Cross and can serve as a primary means of communication.
Collection and Distribution Services During and after some disasters, such as floods and tornadoes, many people may be without food or clothing. People may be homeless for a time. Scout troops working under the direction of their leaders and local officials can help collect needed items and get them to a central distribution point. Usually, officials will set up collection and distribution points at places such as churches, fire stations, schools, and other public building. Your troop meeting place might be used. If your troop has developed a master map of your community, you will know where food stores are. This will save time in rounding up supplies. Scouts can also distribute leaflet or instructions for the Red Cross, the local emergency management agency, or other local authorities and volunteer groups.
Mass Feeding, Shelter and Sanitation The ideal site for a mass feeding operation is a building already equipped with suitable food service equipment. Satisfactory sites might include a school lunchroom, a church, or a club facility where meals for large numbers of people can be safely prepared and served. The site should include adequate refrigeration equipment, large ranges, sufficient work surfaces, adequate dish washing areas, and hand washing facilities. If possible, your mass feeding operation should be supervised by someone who has experience with large food service operations. Possible candidates include school or institutional food service managers - or people who have worked as cooks, employees, or managers in large restaurants. Taking shelter is critical in times of disaster. Sheltering is appropriate when conditions require that you seek protection in your home, place of employment, or other location where you are when disaster strikes. Sheltering outside the hazard area would include staying with friends and relatives, seeking commercial lodging, or staying in a mass care facility operated by disaster relief groups in conjunction with local authorities. Scouts know about emergency sanitation than most people. Troops can help treat water if clean water service is not available after emergency. Wherever an emergency shelter has been set up, emergency sanitation often must be provided. Troops also can round up covered containers for garbage or come up with other possibilities for dealing with trash.