“… the norm is a belief that freedom prevails, which is true for those who have internalized the required values and perspectives.” Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent, p. 304.
Lecture Summary • Chomsky and Herman’s “Propaganda Model” • Hegemony (Antonio Gramsci) • The West and the Rest - what has taken the place of anticommunism in the elite media?
Chomsky and Herman’s “Propaganda Model” • Noam Chomsky • the “elite” (= bourgeois) media • the role of the elite media is to inculcate and defend the elite agenda
ownership advertising sourcing flak anticommunism needs to be replaced? The Five Filters
A “Free Market Model” • There is no coercion • There is no conspiracy • Free press but within limits set by consensus / “common sense” • Unpalatable news is not suppressed, but ignored or under-reported
Structure and Intent • Propaganda is structural • Intent is an “unmeasurable red herring” • Hermann, p. 120
Media selectivity: Watergate • Republicans spied on Democrats • Democrats were solidly based in the business community • Media attacked the government only when it threatened the Democrats, not when it illegally attacked the Socialist Workers Party, black activists, etc.
Hegemony: • “spontaneous” consent given by the great masses of the population to the general direction imposed on social life by the dominant fundamental group; this consent is “historically”caused by the prestige … which the dominant group enjoys because of its position and function in the world of production.” • Antonio Gramsci
The West and the Rest • Geopolitical divisions • Not strictly geographic • “West” coextensive with bourgeois and pop culture? • Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong belong to the West?
Social networks in the “West” • West – nuclear family; pop culture supplies virtual relationships (star system) • the rest – premodern, political factionalism overlaps with family structure
Global and local capital • conflict at the outskirts of the West: the “emerging markets” • Latin America • India • post-communist Russia • Yugoslavia
Hezbollah • Western-style media “savvy” combined with premodern social networks
Issues: • Is objective reporting possible? • Is consent “false consciousness”? • Would people want something different without the propaganda? • Is “manufacturing consent” not better than jail and bullets?