apa without agony n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
APA Without Agony PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
APA Without Agony

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 42

APA Without Agony - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 201 Views
  • Uploaded on

APA Without Agony. Intext Citations. Overview. Basic Principles Follow author-date system Credit words and ideas from other authors Give information on how to locate the source What about…. How does it work?. Used in social sciences to.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'APA Without Agony' - libitha


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
apa without agony

APA Without Agony

Intext Citations

overview
Overview
  • Basic Principles
    • Follow author-date system
    • Credit words and ideas from other authors
    • Give information on how to locate the source
  • What about…
how does it work
How does it work?
  • Used in social sciences to
  • Based on publication criteria for American Psychological Association (APA)
  • Acknowledge sources of information
  • Allow readers to locate original sources

Author-date system

Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self-esteem, and task-delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5), 185-196. Retrieved from Academic Search Elite database.

Ferrari (2000) has classified procrastinators as arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators.

intext citation

reference entry

how does it work1
How does it work?

Within a paper

how does it work2
How does it work?

Within the field

COAUTHORS

OPPOSITION

Baumeister

Tice

Choi

CITED BY

FERRARI

Perry

Psychology

Steel

Philosophy

how does it work4
How does it work?
  • Citations give credit to words or ideastaken from other authors.

IDEAS Tice and Baumeister (1997) reject the idea that procrastination can be a productive strategy.

WORDS “Procrastination is not aneutral or innocuous form of time management, let alone a helpful or beneficial one (as some people claim)” (Tice & Baumeister, 1997, p. 456).

Bam! Biff!

where do i fit in

Consider this real-life example. The first guidelines given to freelance writers areoften amended two or three times as a project begins. Experienced writers learnto write one lesson and wait for feedback.

The key to productive procrastination, according to Chu and Choi, is to use delay as a proactive strategy.

Where do I fit in?
  • Procrastination can be a productivestrategy for adapting to rapidly changing priorities (Chu & Choi, 2005).
how does it work5
How does it work?
  • Two elements
    • Intext citations credit words and ideas (Chapter 6)
    • Reference list locates original source(Chapter 7)

Author-date system

Author-date system

Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self-esteem, and task-delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5), 185-196. Retrieved from Academic Search Elite database.

Ferrari (2000) has classified procrastinators as arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators.

intext citation

reference entry

what are apa s principles
What are APA’s principles?
  • Acknowledge any words or ideasfrom other sources.
  • Provide enough information to locate your sources.

Author-date system

principle 1 credit ideas
Principle 1: Credit ideas

References

Boan, R., Doyle, C., & Shahbahrami, P. (2009). American Psychological Association (APA) guide for Allied Health Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.midlandstech.edu/healthsciences/Resources.html

Using APA style correctly increases a writer’s credibility (Boan, Doyle, & Shahbahrami, 2009).

parenthetical; no quotation marks

reference entry

p rinciple 1 credit exact words
Principle 1: Credit exact words

References

Boan, R., Doyle, C., & Shahbahrami, P. (2009). APA format guide for Health Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.midlandstech.edu/healthsciences/Resources.html

“If the reference is not correct or the article cannot be found, the credibility of the document becomes questionable” (Boan, Doyle, & Shahbahrami, 2009).

word-for-word; quotation marks

reference entry

principle 1 credit twice
Principle 1: Credit twice

Correct use of APA style makes a writer more credible (Boan, Doyle, & Shahbahrami, 2009).

References

Boan, R., Doyle, C., & Shahbahrami, P. (2009). APA format guide for Health Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.midlandstech.edu/healthsciences/Resources.html

Parenthetical citations point to the reference list.

Reference list entries point to the original.

did ambrose give credit

AMBROSE

Did Ambrose give credit?

CHILDERS

"Up, up, up…”

"Up, up, up….”

principle 1 plagiarism check
"Up, up, up he went, until he got above the clouds. No amount of practice could have prepared the pilot and crew for what they encountered—B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds over here, over there, everywhere."

—Stephen Ambrose, The Wild Blue, p. 164

"Up, up, up, groping through the clouds for what seemed like an eternity. ... No amount of practice could have prepared them for what they encountered. B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds all over the sky."

—Thomas Childers, Wings of Morning, p. 83

Principle 1: Plagiarism check
principle 1 credit carefully

Ambrose’s

apology

…In each case, I footnoted the passage in question, but failed to put some words and sentences into quotation marks. I am sorry and will make relevant changes in all future editions.”—Stephen Ambrose

Principle 1: Credit carefully

"No amount of practice could have prepared [the pilot and crew] for what they encountered. B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds" (Childers, 1995, p. 83) over here, over there, everywhere.

References

Childers, T. (1995). Wings of morning.New York: Perseus.

parenthetical

reference entry

principle 2 locate the source
Principle 2: Locate the source

Like Hansel and Gretel, follow the breadcrumb trail

intext citation format
Intext Citation Format

Print quotations: (Author, year, page number).

Researcher-focused

Burns (2003) has stated that leadership begins “where change begins” (p. 140).

Chronology-focused

In 1978, Burns published Leadership, a seminal work in an emerging field. In 2003, he proposed solutions to global problems in Transforming Leadership.

Idea-focused

The innovator’s approach to leadership is exemplified by Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s first days in office (Burns, 2003, p. 181).

intext citation format1
Intext Citation Format

Paraphrased or no page #: (Author, year).

Researcher-focused

Mann (2005)developed a (10+2)*5 method for overcoming procrastination.

Chronology-focused

In2005, Manndeveloped a unique method for overcoming procrastination, which he calls the (10+2)*5 method.

Idea-focused

The (10+2)*5 method for overcoming procrastination has three steps: work for ten minutes, take a two-minute break, and go back to work, repeating the cycle for an hour(Mann, 2005).

intext citation format2
Intext Citation Format

Quotations from Internet:

(Author last name, Year, section header, paragraph #)

EXAMPLE

Mann (2005) developed a (10+2)*5 method for overcoming procrastination: work for ten minutes, take a two-minute break, and go back to work, repeating the cycle for an hour. His advice seems counterintuitive: “Breaks cannot be missed. Period. Go surf the web. Now. Seriously. GO!” (Important squirrely rules section, para. 3).

intext citations in
Acknowledge words with quotation marks and intext citation.

Acknowledge ideas with intext citation only.

Intext Citations in ¶

What is procrastination?

Steel (2008) has described procrastination as trading “short-term gain for long-term pain.” Ferrari (2000) classified procrastinators as arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators. In his view, most people occasionally put things off, but some are chronic procrastinators whose delays disrupt their lives: “Remember, 80% of us procrastinate, but 20% are procrastinators”(2005).

Both Steel (2008)and Ferrari (2000, 2005) emphasized the negative. However, Chu and Choi (2005) found strategic delay could

  • Insert date the first time an author’s name is mentioned in a paragraph.
  • Place any remaining information at the end of material from a source.
  • Intext citations apply to one paragraph.
nonretrievable info
Nonretrievable Info

Retrievable

Include in reference list

  • books
  • web articles
  • videos
  • magazines
  • newsgroup postings

Cite only in text(S. Oh, personal communication, August 27, 2007)

Nonretrievable

  • letters
  • in-person interviews
  • emails
  • phone calls
what s the error
What’s the error?

Gesundheit, A. (2009, August 28). Interview with Kaplan librarian.

Plotz, D. (2002, December 11). The plagiarist: Why Stephen Ambrose is a vampire. Slate. Retrieved from http://slate.msn.com/?id=2060618

INTEXT CITATION ONLY(A. Gesundheit, personal communication, August 28, 2009).

details details
Details, details
  • Principle 1
    • What to quote
    • Block quotations
    • Placing parenthetical citations
    • No page number
  • Principle 2
    • No author
    • Many authors
    • Quoted quotation
    • No date
    • Many sources

“ ”

what to quote
Any words from the original should be quoted.What to Quote

At least half the mystery novels published violate the law that the solution, once revealed, must seemto be inevitable.

—Raymond Chandler

  • Exceptions
    • common language
      • writ of habeas corpus
      • situational leadership theory
  • common knowledge
    • widely known
    • easily availablein standard references

Raymond Chandler declared that readers should feel that the solution of a mystery is “inevitable.”

quotations 40 words
Quotations < 40 words
  • Set off someone else’s exact words with quotation marks
  • “Down these mean streets a man must go who is not himself mean, who is neither tarnished nor afraid”(Chandler, 1945).
  • Raymond Chandler (1945) believed that a detective should be “the best man in his world.”
quotations 40 words1

.5"

Quotations 40+ words
  • Set off long quotations as block quotations

The classic definition of a detective comes from “The Simple Art of Murder”:

  • Use a new line and left indent instead of quotation marks

Down these mean streets a man must go who is not himself mean, who is neither tarnished nor afraid. The detective in this kind of story must be such a man. He is the hero, he is everything…. He must be, to use a rather weathered phrase, a man of honor…. (Chandler, 1945)

  • Preview block quotes

Hint: Word will count words if you highlight them and choose Tools, Word Count.

remember intext citations
Remember Intext Citations

Basic format: (Author, year, page or section head).

Researcher-focused

Burns (2003) has stated that leadership begins “where change begins” (p. 140).

Chronology-focused

In 1978, Burns published Leadership, a seminal work in an emerging field. In 2003, he proposed solutions to global problems in Transforming Leadership.

Idea-focused

The innovator’s approach to leadership is exemplified by Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s first days in office (Burns, 2003, p. 181).

no page header

Stable page numbers

  • book
  • print version
  • PDF
No Page # / Header?
  • If author/date are given in text, that information is not repeated within parentheses at the end.
  • Use only stable page numbers.
  • Use section headers for Internet sources that have them (Steel, n.d., My Definition, para. 1).

According to Tannen (1991), genuine debate has been replaced by an “argument culture” in which people reflexively attack others’ positions.

no page number / header?

source reflective statement
Source Reflective Statement
  • Add comment to show where source material ends and your thoughts begin.

According to Tannen (1991), genuine debate has been replaced by an “argument culture” in which people reflexively attack others’ positions. Some readers might assume that Tannen believes that everyone should just try to get along, but her position is not so simplistic. Tannen argues that…

source-reflective statement

quotation sandwich
Quotation Sandwich
  • Top slice of bread: introduction
  • Filling: material from source
  • Bottom slice: relationship to topic

Ferrari (2005) has studied procrastination in college students. He has identified three types of procrastinators: arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators.Each type puts things off for a different reason. Knowing what triggers procrastination is the first step in overcoming the habit.

what about no author
What about… no author?
  • Start with key words from title
  • Use only as much as necessary
  • Follow standard formatting
    • (“Personality,” 2008).
    • (Types of Procrastinators, 2005).
    • (“Procrastination,” 2008a)
    • (“Procrastination,” 2008b)
what about many authors
What about…many authors?
  • Consult the Publication Manual, Table 6.1
what about quoted quote
What about…quoted quote?
  • Ideally, find the original
  • Second-best: use as citedin to direct readers to reference list entry

INDIRECT QUOTATION

Procrastinators trade “short term gain for long term pain” according to Steel (as cited in Kahn, 2008).

REFERENCE ENTRY

Kahn, U. (2008, December 7 ). Academics invent a mathematical equation for why people procrastinate. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/

what about no date
What about…no date?
  • Use n.d.

INTEXTSteel (n.d.) defined procrastination as “to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay.”

REFERENCE LISTSteel, P. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from Procrastination Central Web site: http://procrastinus.com

what about many sources
What about…many sources?
  • Separate with semicolon
  • Alphabetize within citationto match order of reference list

MULTIPLE CITATION

Most researchers emphasize the negative consequences of procrastination (Ferarri, 2005; Steel, 2008; Tice & Baumeister, 1997).

citation machine

Disclaimer

None are perfect.

Citation Machine

Citation Machine (www.citationmachine.net)

Dig before leaving a blank.

resources
Resources

http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocAPA.html

http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocAPA.html

resources1
Resources

http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c09_o.html

or google Hacker APA query

resources2
Resources

http://apastyle.org

strategies for apa
Strategies for APA
  • Find a model
  • Use a checklist
  • Read FAQs
  • ConsultAPA Manual
  • Take a tutorial
  • Visitapastyle.org
  • Let the computer do it

word-crafter.net/APA