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The Agony of Reconstruction

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  1. The Agony of Reconstruction The U.S. after the Civil War lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  2. Questions for Discussion • What were the opposing views of Reconstruction in the wake of the Civil War? • Who supported these competing views and why? • Was Reconstruction a success? Why or why not? lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  3. Abraham Lincoln • Lawyer • Statesman • 16th President (1861-1865) • Assassinated April 14, 1865 lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  4. Andrew Johnson • Succeeded Lincoln as President • Southern Democrat lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  5. Reconstruction Raised 3 Questions • Can the US ever truly be united? • Can blacks and whites live together? • Who runs this country? lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  6. Carl Schurz • Born in Cologne, Germany • Revolutionary figure in Germany • Public speaker and abolitionist • Hated Southerners • Reported on the effect of the Civil War on the South at Johnson’s request lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  7. What the War did to the South • Physically • Legally and Constitutionally • Emotionally lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  8. Wade-Davis Bill • Asserted congressional power over Reconstruction. • Required that a majority of a seceded state’s white men take a loyalty oath and guarantee back equality. • Sound familiar to anyone? lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  9. Four theories of Reconstruction • Presidential Theory • Southern Theory • Conquered Provinces Theory • “Forfeited Rights” Theory lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  10. Presidential Theory • Southern states never out of the Union • Not “Reconstruction,” but “Restoration.” • Minor modifications • Restore political rights • Appointment of governors lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  11. Southern Theory • War proved secession could not take place therefore they’d never left the union. • Therefore, no Constitutional question • Everythign should revert back to the way it was lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  12. Conquered Provinces • Backed by Thaddeus Stevens and Radical Republicans • Shattered the Constitution • Southern states subject to international law as a “conquered province.” lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  13. Forfeited Rights • Ultimately governed Reconstruction • Secession null and void but emphasized that governments had rebelled • Because rebellion, they forfeited rights under the Constitution • Becomes the duty and right of Congress to ensure republican form of government • Became the theory that underlay the Reconstruction Act of 1867 lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  14. Radical Republicans • After 1866 elections, “Radical” meant being committed to destroying slavery and guaranteeing civil rights for African Americans lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  15. Thaddeus Stevens • Influential leader of Reconstruction • Served in congress • Abolitionist • Led impeachment forces against Johnson • Sponsored radical plan of Reconstruction lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  16. Wendell Phillips • Abolistionst • Labor reformer • Speaker • Abandoned practice of law to speak on social/policital issues lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  17. Charles Sumner • Senator • Deeply devoted to cause of civil rights • Joined Stevens as leader of Radicals lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  18. Bills Johnson Vetoed • Freedman’s Bureau Bill of 1866 • Civil Rights act of 1866 lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  19. Jefferson Davis • President of the CFA • Only military leader of Cnfederacy to be placed in prison • Served two years lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  20. The Lost Cause • In response to Reconstruction, many Southerners embraced “the lost cause,” an image of Confederate soldiers battling to maintain Southern traditions and institutions. lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  21. The New South lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  22. Questions • How did the Civil War transofrm the South? What I really a “new” south? Why or why not? • Were freed slaves better off in the South after the Civil War? Why or why not? • What were the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments? Did they transofrm American society? Why or why not? lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  23. By the late 1860s some Southerns were already calling for a more diversified economy • Slow shift from famrs to factories lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  24. General observations about the South • Never monolithic – never a monopoly on racism, violence or one –party politics. Just seemed that way in comparison to the rest of the country. • Only white Southerners have been defeated in way and had their territory occupied by enemy • Until 1950, majority of blacks in US lived in the South • “Solid South” refers to no Republican presidential candidate carrying the South between 1877-1920 lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  25. “New South” • No longer two separate nations – erased the Mason-Dixon line • Southern economy had changed • Race relations had changed lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  26. Henry W Grady • Native of Atlanta, GA. • Correspondent of New York Herald • Conceptualized “new south” lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  27. Economically • Reconstruction of infrastructure • Railroads • Ports • Roads • communications • Industrialization • Cotton • Iron • tobacco lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  28. Race Relations • 13th amendment: slavery punishable by law • 14th amendment: citizenship granted to any person born in the US • 15th amendment: right for all adult males to vote • This annoyed women lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu

  29. More on Race Relations • KKK • Redeemers • “Mississipi Plan” • “Grandfather Clause” • “Jim Crow” laws • Plessy v. Ferguson lecture notes from us.history.wisc.edu