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What is the Internet?

What is the Internet?

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What is the Internet?

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  1. What is the Internet?

  2. What is the Internet? • A global network of networks

  3. What is the Internet? • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)

  4. What is the Internet? • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)

  5. What is the Internet? • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches) • The computers connected to each network

  6. What is the Internet? • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches) • The computers connected to each network • A book of “IP” addresses that tells each computer where all the others are

  7. IP??? • IP = Internet Protocol – routes the packets • TCP = Transmission Control Protocol arrives in reliable order TCP/IP describes the rules for transmitting small packets of bits (0s and 1s) from one computer to another.

  8. Let’s Try It

  9. What’s in the packets… Here are the minimum things each needs: • An address (IP number) • An addressee, e.g., someone@… • Something to indicate order or sequence • A portion of the message (Why not all?…) How would that work here?…

  10. Delivering the message… How would that work here in LC 24?… • We need an address: 24.2.9.7 And right away we’re stuck. What does this mean? How do we find out?… • We need a DNS server, which we’ll use in reverse… going from “number” to “name”

  11. Delivering the message… How would that work here in LC 24?… • We need an address: 24.2.9.7 And right away we’re stuck. What does this mean? How do we find out?… • We need a DNS server, which we’ll use in reverse… going from “number” to “name”

  12. The LC “DNS” server… Our hypothetical LC addresses, by analogy with IP addresses, are quadruples: LC (room) # . side of room . row # . seat # where left/right side (from front) is 1/2, row is from the front, and seat is from the aisle.

  13. The LC “DNS” server… Our hypothetical LC addresses, by analogy with IP addresses, are quadruples: LC (room) #.side of room . row # . seat # where left/right side (from front) is 1/2, row is from the front, and seat is from the aisle. So where is 24.2.9.7?…

  14. Now… • You try it….

  15. Pieces of the message… • Splenda works • As well • As sugar • For packet • Switching

  16. Each computer on the Internet is uniquely identified so that it can be addressed. It may have: • a name – for example, www.albany.edu But it must have: • an IP address – 169.226.1.110

  17. The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS), the white pages of the Internet. There are thousands of DNSs around the world, and they all know that: 169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu and vice versa.

  18. The domain name has 2 parts – the host and top level domain (TLD). www.albany.edu albany = host (really University at Albany) .edu = top level domain= education

  19. Domain categories Other top level domain categories in the U.S.: • .com – businesses • .edu – educational institutions • .gov – government agencies • .mil – military units • .net – networks • .org – non-profit organizations

  20. The authority for domains… http://www.icann.org/ ICANN - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Newest TLDs: .mail – a site for anti-spam community .kid -??thoughts??

  21. Next question… When was the Internet?

  22. When was the Internet? 1961 – WOW!! Len Kleinrock (then at MIT) developed theory of “packet switching,” describing how data could behave on a highway where collisions were not only allowed but expected!!

  23. When was the Internet? 1965 – Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the Pentagon funded the first experimental connection between a computer at MIT and one in California… over a 1200 bps phone line.

  24. When was the Internet? 1966-69 – ARPA contract awarded to an architectural consulting firm to design and build “ARPANET,” the direct ancestor of today’s Internet, with a starting configuration of four nodes!

  25. When was the Internet? • 8/30/69UCLA • 10/1/69 SRI • 10/29/69 1st message, UCLA to SRI • 11/1/69 UCSB • 12/69 University of Utah

  26. When was the Internet? By 1971, there were 23 “hosts” (computers) at 15 “nodes” in CA, UT, IL, MI, PA, & MA

  27. When was the Internet? 1972 @ as connector for userid and address 1973 – 75% of all ARPANET traffic is email 1975 – first mailing list, MsgGroup, forerunner of listservs 4/12/79 –the “emoticon” :-) smiles

  28. When was the Internet? 1980 – first accidental virus shuts down ARPANET 1984 – number of hosts breaks 1000, William Gibson coins “cyberspace” 1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000 1989 – number of hosts breaks 100,000 1992 – number of hosts breaks 1,000,000

  29. When was the Internet?

  30. When was the Internet? 1990 – original ARPANET shut down 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software 1993 – First browser 1994 – Arizona law firm sends first “spam,” first Pizza Hut takes orders online 1995 – Internet becomes commercial, AltaVista goes online in December