Robotics Bertain http://www.engineering-ed.org/
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1920 The idea of a robot is not new. For thousands of years man has been imagining intelligent mechanized devices that perform human-like tasks. He has built automatic toys and mechanisms and imagined robots in drawings, books, plays and science fiction movies.
What is the definition of a 'robot'?
"A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks" Robot Institute of America, 1979
In fact, the term "robot" was first used in 1920 in a play called "R.U.R." Or "Rossum's universal robots" by the Czech writer Karel Capek. The plot was simple: man makes robot then robot kills man! Many movies that followed continued to show robots as harmful, menacing machines.
Where did the word 'robot' come from?
The term 'robotics' refers to the study and use of robots. The term was coined and first used by the Russian-born American scientist and writer Isaac Asimov (born Jan. 2, 1920, died Apr. 6, 1992). Asimov wrote prodigiously on a wide variety of subjects. He was best known for his many works of science fiction.
The most famous include I Robot (1950),
He also wrote the three “Laws of Robotics for which he is also famous.
which are made to look.
human are called "androids".
Each new use brings new hope and possibilities, but also potential dangers and risks.
Many robots for bio-production have been developed in the world and it is predicted that they will be commercialized in the 21st century, since some of them were already commercialized by some companies in Japan and European countries. A tomato and cherry tomato harvesting robot, a cucumber harvesting robot, strawberry harvesting robots, a multi-operation robot to work in grapevine yard, and a chrysanthemum cutting sticking robot.
HAZBOT III is part of JPL's Emergency Response Robotics Project, a five-year effort begun in 1991 to apply robotics technology to the safe handling of hazardous materials. Robots such as HAZBOT also hold potential for use in mining and law enforcement. "It's almost standard now to have robots on bomb squads in major cities, but it took several years for the idea to catch on," said Richard Welch, task manager of Emergency Response Robotics at JPL.
Future missions to space will include many robotic vehicles designed to perform specific tasks both autonomous and remote controlled.
Parts of a robot
Robots use arms, end effectors (grippers), drive mechanisms, sensors, controllers, gears and motors to perform the human-like functions necessary to perform their jobs
Robot arms come in all shapes and sizes. The arm is the part of the robot that positions the end-effector and sensors to do their pre-programmed business.
Many (but not all) resemble human arms, and have shoulders, elbows, wrists, even fingers. This gives the robot a lot of ways to position itself in its environment. Each joint is said to give the robot 1 degree of freedom.
Degrees of freedom
So, a simple robot arm with 3 degrees of freedom could move in 3 ways: up and down, left and right, forward and backward. Most working robots today have 6 degrees of freedom.
Humans have many more and some robots have 8, 12, or even 20 degrees of freedom, but these 6 are enough for most basic tasks. As a result, most jointed-arm robots in use today have 6 degrees of freedom
AXIS OF ROTATION
X, Y, Z, Tilt and Spin
Are 3 of the degrees of freedom that robots perform. Most arms move according to Cartesian coordinates
Tilt is the angle between gripper and Z-Axis.The animation sequence shows the three most important tilting angles +45, 0, and -45 and how tilting enables to tip over a block.
Spin is defined as the gripper's rotation around the Z-Axis. You need to choose a spin value to align the jaws of the gripper with a block. Spin 0 aligns the block with the Y-Axis, Spin -45 with the diagonal between Y- and X-Axis.
What are sensors?
Sensors collect all the information a robot needs to operate and interact with its environment.
What are Controllers?
Controllers interpret all the input from the sensors and decide how to act in response.
What are sensors for?
The control of a manipulator or industrial robot is based on the correct interpretation of sensory information. This information can be obtained either internally to the robot (for example, joint positions and motor torque) or externally using a wide range of sensors.
Types of Sensors
Since sensors are any device that provide input of data to the robot controller a wide verity of sensors exist. Some basic types of sensors are shown including:
The bumper skirt on this robot is an example of a touch sensor. When the robot runs into a wall the bumper skirt hits a micro switch which lets the robot controller know that the robot is up against a wall. Other types of touch sensors are used internally to let the robot know when an arm is extended to far and it should be retracted or when the robots other physical limits are reached.
Light sensors are used to detect the presence and Intensity of light. These can be used to make a light seeking robot and are often used to simulate insect intelligence in robots.
Heat sensors help robots determine if they are in danger of overheating. These sensors are often used internally to make sure that the robot’s electronics do not breakdown.
Ultra Sonic Rangers are used to determine how far a robot is away from an object. They are often used by robots that need to navigate complicated terrain and cannot risk bumping into anything.
Gyroscopes are used in robots that need to maintain balance or are not inherently stable. Gyroscopes are often coupled with powerful robot controllers that have the processing power necessary calculate thousands of physical simulations per second.
Use transistors as a switch to control power to motors, relays and lamps. Current and power handling capability is pretty much dictated by package size. The bigger the package, the more power.
Basic Stamp IIThe Basic Stamp II is a small, self-contained computer controller manufactured by Parallax Inc. This easy-to-use system is programmed using a Basic-like language called PBasic. Programs are written on an IBM-style PC then downloaded to the Basic Stamp II for execution. Large libraries of programs can be created and saved.
Tiny custom microchips like these give "vision" to a toy car by processing images and telling the vehicle how to respond.