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Taoism. Pronounced dow. The Balance. Yin Female Earth Dark Passive Absorbing Even Numbers Valleys. Yang Male Heaven Light Active Penetrating Odd Numbers Mountains. Yin-Yang Complimentary Principles. Yin-Yang. Taoism and Confucism present in native Chinese culture.

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taoism

Taoism

Pronounced

dow

yin yang complimentary principles
Yin

Female

Earth

Dark

Passive

Absorbing

Even Numbers

Valleys

Yang

Male

Heaven

Light

Active

Penetrating

Odd Numbers

Mountains

Yin-Yang Complimentary Principles
yin yang

Yin-Yang

Taoism and Confucism

present in native Chinese culture

backdrop
Backdrop
  • Taoism is eclectic and it includes insights about nature, philosophy, principles for living, exercises for healthy living, rituals for protection.
  • It includes elements from Chinese folk religion.
  • There is philosophical Taoism found in Tao Te Ching and there is the Tao of ritual form.
beginnings
Beginnings
  • One of the most prominent figures in Taoism is Lao Tzu whose name means “old master” or “old child.”
  • He was born in 600 b.c.e.
  • He was a librarian for a long time who grew tired of his job.
  • He left his job and traveled to the western part of China.
more lao tzu
More Lao Tzu
  • While at the western border the guard recognized him as a prominent scholar.
  • The guard refused him passage until he wrote down his teachings.
the writings of lao tzu
The Writings of Lao Tzu
  • Tao Te Ching, (pronounced dow de jing) is the classic literature of Taoism.
  • Tao Te Ching means “the classical book about the Way and its power.”
  • It consists of about 81 short chapters.
  • It is possible the compilations of many people.
  • It is repetitious, has no clear order and has a deliberate lack of clarity.
about the tao
About the Tao
  • It cannot be put in words.
  • It cannot be named.
  • But it can be experienced.
  • The Tao is the origin of everything and individuals are manifestations of the Tao.
  • The Tao is perceived by intuition.
  • Meditating on certain images can help us experience the Tao.
images of the tao
Water - water is gentle, ordinary, and lowly, but strong and necessary. It flows around every obstacle. “The highest good is like water.” It assists in all things “and does not compete with them.”Images of the Tao
zhuangzi chuang tzu

Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)

explains “the way” through stories

zhuangzi
Zhuangzi
  • Lived around 300 b.c.e.
  • Playful, independent, and in love with the fantastic
  • His book The Zhuangzi is made up of seven “inner chapters” written by him and twenty-six “outer chapters” probably written by others.
the zuangzi
The Zuangzi
  • It contains many stories
  • It rejects all barriers
    • ordinary-fantastic, normal-paranormal, etc.
  • It talks about harmony with nature, the movement of the Tao and pleasure from simplicity.
  • It talks about being one with the Tao.
  • It also contains humor.
dream within a dream
Dream within a Dream
  • One of the most noted stories is where Zhuangzi dreams he is a butterfly not knowing that he was Zhuangzi and when he awakes he is not sure if was a butterfly dreaming of being Zhuangzi or vice-a-versa.
main teachings
Main teachings
  • Tao - The Way- is the mystery that makes nature “the way” it is. Although it is frequently translated as the way it can mean process, pattern, existence. Humans can unite themselves with the way they live.
effortlessness
Wu wei - The ideal of effortlessness. Commandments would go against the nature of Tao. No action, no “unusual exertion.” Avoid unnecessary action.Effortlessness
simplicity
Taoism urges simplicity. Eliminate the unnecessary, the artificial and appreciate the ordinary. There is a distrust of formal education because of its complexity.Simplicity
gentleness
Taoists extol gentleness. They do not like weapons of war. A wise person lives in peace and restraint and avoids unnecessary violence.Gentleness
relativity
Taoists believe in seeing things as whole and beyond opposites. One needs to broaden one’s perspective and avoid parochial concerns.Relativity
taoism and long life

Taoism and Long Life

“Live Long and Prosper”

living longer
Living Longer
  • Taoist have searched for ways to increase life span as a product of being in union with the Tao. There are practices which help the individual achieve harmony with themselves and the universe around them. There are suggestions on various types of body movement which helps one to attain this desired state.
achieving balance
Achieving Balance
  • There is an internal alchemy which aims at transforming the life force called ch’i. This is managed in at least five different ways.
    • Through Yoga - meditation
    • Through Physical Exercise
    • Through Diet
    • Through Medicine
    • Through a combination of the above
balance through meditation
Balance Through Meditation
  • One way to improve achieve balance is by concentrating on the energy centers of the body and directing the inner ch’i from one vital organ to another.
balance through physical exercise
Balance Through Physical Exercise
  • One can achieve a oneness with the Tao by performing out certain physical movements which assists to direct the energy flow. This is called Tai Ch’i.
  • Many people have seen various techniques from different schools.
balance through diet
Balance Through Diet
  • Harmony within is also achieved through diet and there are certain foods which are associated with yin and the yang. Some foods reduce or augment the vital energy. A balance of these foods is essential to achieve harmony.
yin and yang of food
Yin

Dairy products

Green Vegetables

Sugar

Seafood

Yang

Chili

Cinnamon

Root Vegetables

Poultry

Beans

Yin and Yang of food
balance through medicine
Balance through Medicine
  • Natural herbs, spices and various chemical concoctions were used to achieve balance and extend. Many of them did not work. However, there are some have proven to be helpful such as ginseng, garlic and ginger.
  • Massages and acupuncture are used to directly manipulate vital organs.
harmony through many
Harmony through many
  • Harmony can be achieved by using the various forms together. The balance is affected by diet, physical and mental proportions.
religious taoism
Religious Taoism
  • Religious Taoism is a later development. As time went on people met to share ideas and insights. Eventually several groups arose.
heavenly masters
Heavenly Masters
  • One group, which set-up an organization with a hierarchical structure, was led by Zhang Daoling. Because their successor is called “heavenly master” this sect is know as “way of the heavenly masters” and is very active in Taiwan.
buddhism and other influences
Buddhism and other Influences
  • Taoism became more religious in part as a reaction to Buddhism. As a result there are Taoist texts. These text cover a wide range of topics (i.e. meditation, diet)
  • Taoism also absorbed Chinese world view.
  • It also developed a “pantheon of gods.”
  • It is much stronger in Taiwan than in China where it was started.