Power and PoliticsChapter 10 “Getting others to do what you want them to do”
Authority vs. Power • What is the difference between authority and power? • Where does power come from? • Is power part of the organizational culture?
Five Bases of Power • Organizational Power: • Reward power: Promising or granting rewards • Coercive power: Threats or actual punishment • Legitimate power: Based on position or formal authority • Personal Power: • Expert power: Sharing of knowledge or information • Referent power: Power of one’s personality (charisma)
Five Bases of Power • Which types of power are most frequent in your organization? • Can a person use different power bases? • If you could have one type of interpersonal power, what would it be and why? • “those who have the gold make the rules” What does this mean in regard to the five bases of power? • What types of power are critical to getting a job done? • How will (if it will) the Internet influence power? • Does power exist in cross-functional organizations?
Need for Power • Desire to have an impact on others. • Strong action, giving help or advice, controlling someone. • Action that produces emotion in others • Concern for reputation • High need for power: • Competitive, aggressive, prestige • Correlated with success when directed toward the organization and not toward personal agenda • Coaching, democratic managing style
Structural and Situational Power • Structural power – allocates decision-making responsibility. Establishes the flow of communication and information: formal and authority to perform specific jobs and make decisions. • Power stems from access to resources, information, and support and from the ability to get cooperation in doing necessary work. • Resources are allocated through power lines • The degree units can affect decision-making determines its power • Information is the basis for decision-making
Upward flow of Power • Does power travel up? • Expertise, location, and information • Manipulative persuasion – person’s direct attempt to disguise the true persuasion objective. • Manipulation – form of influence in which both the objective and the attempt are concealed.
Organizational Politics and Impression Management Organizational politics: “Involves intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups.” Political Tactics: • Attacking or blaming others. • Using information as a political tool • Creating a favorable image. • Developing a base of support. • Praising others (ingratiation). • Forming power coalitions with strong allies. • Associating with influential people. • Creating obligations (reciprocity). Impression management: “The process by which people attempt to control or manipulate the reactions of others to images of themselves or their ideas.”
Managing Organizational Politics • Reduce System Uncertainty • Reduce Competition • Break Existing Political Fiefdoms • Prevent Future Fiefdoms
Nine Generic Influence Tactics • Rational persuasion. Trying to convince someone with reason, logic, or facts. • Inspirational appeals. Trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others’ emotions, ideals, or values. • Consultation. Getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes. • Ingratiation. Getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request; being friendly, helpful, and using praise or flattery. • Personal appeals. Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request.
Nine Generic Influence Tactics • Exchange. Making express or implied promises and trading favors. • Coalition tactics. Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone. • Pressure. Demanding compliance or using intimidation or threats. • Legitimating tactics. Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or polices, or express or implied support from superiors.
How To Extend Your Influenceby Forming Strategic Alliances • Mutual respect • Openness • Trust • Mutual benefit • Sponsorship
The Evolution of Power No empowerment- Authoritarian power (domination)- Influence sharing (consultation)- Power sharing (participation)- Power distribution (delegation) High empowerment • The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
The Evolution of Power: From Domination to Delegation Power DistributionFollowers grantedauthority to makedecisions. High Power SharingManager/leader andfollowers jointlymake decisions. Power DistributionFollowers grantedauthority to makedecisions. Degree of Empowerment AuthoritarianPower Manager/leaderimposes decisions. Domination Consultation Participation Delegation None
The illusion of power • Read the “Illusion of Power” on page 259-260. • Form small groups – page 267-268