Power and Influence • Power = • Dependency = • Dependence goes up as a function of: • importance • scarcity • nonsubstitutability
Bases of Power and Influence Formal Bases or Power: Coercive power Reward power Legitimate power Personal Bases of Power: Expert power Referent power (but also coercive and reward power??)
Using Power Effectively Understand individual and structural bases of power. Use to accomplish collective goals. Use to deploy resources efficiently and effectively. Use to help employees grow and develop. Always maintain dignity and respect of those involved.
Using Power Ineffectively Relies too much on one (or a few) bases of power and influence. Used for self-serving purposes or agenda. Seeks compliance through legitimate authority and giving orders. Uses coercion to get what’s wanted.
Commitment Resistance Compliance Coercive Power Reward Power Legitimate Power Expert Power Referent Power (When you use....) Bases of Power and Expected Reactions from Others ( ...others will typically respond with: )
Creativity (not limited to boss’s abilities) Equitable Rewards and Policies Decentralized Structures Potential Benefits of Empowerment Positive Organizational Culture Fewer Bureaucratic Obstacles High Performance Standards Confidence in Employees Proper Employee Selection
Prerequisites of Empowerment What is empowerment? Do we really want/need it? What’s required of employees? What’s required of managers? What’s required of organizations? How does it develop?
Political Behavior Not required as part of one’s formal role, but intended to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages. • Political Behaviors include things like: • strategic withholding/leaking of information • spreading rumors • exchanging favors • lobbying for support • publicizing successes while hiding failures • managing perceptions more than results • “spinning” (shaping) interpretation of facts
Politics: In the Eye of the Beholder? “Political” Label “Effective Management” Label 1. Blaming others vs. Fixing responsibility 2. “Kissing up” vs. Developing working relationships 3. Apple polishing vs. Demonstrating loyalty 4. Passing the buck vs. Delegating authority 5. Covering your rear vs. Documenting decisions 6. Creating conflict vs. Encouraging change and innovation 7. Forming coalitions vs. Facilitating teamwork 8. Whistle blowing vs. Improving efficiency 9. Scheming vs. Planning ahead 10. Overachieving vs. Competent and capable 11. Ambitious vs. Career-minded 12. Opportunistic vs. Astute 13. Cunning vs. Practical-minded 14. Arrogant vs. Confident 15. Perfectionist vs. Attentive to detail Source: Based on T. C. Krell, M. E. Mendenhall, and J. Sendry, “Doing Research in the Conceptual Morass of Organizational Politics,” paper presented at the Western Academy of Management Conference, Hollywood, CA, April 1987.
Factors Contributing toIncreased Political Behavior Individual factors: • Authoritarian personality • High-risk propensity • External locus of control • High need for power • Need for Autonomy • Need for Security • Need for Status
Factors Contributing toIncreased Political Behavior(cont.) Organizational factors: • A low trust culture • Role ambiguity • Unclear performance evaluation standards • Zero-sum reward allocation practices • Democratic decision making • High pressures for performance
Effects of Political Behavior Perceptions of high organizational politics are strongly correlated with: • Lower job satisfaction (and thus greater turnover) • Increased job anxiety and stress • Self-reported declines in performance • Increased defensive behaviors (see Exh. 12-3) • More acts of impression management
Techniques Used forImpression Management • Conformity • Excuses • Apologies • Self-promotion • Flattery • Favors • Association
Encourage Relationships Negotiation Compromise Managing Political Behavior Discourage Negativity Self-Interest Destructive Behavior