Soc 319: Sociological Approaches to Social Psychology. Thursday February 26, 2009 Attribution Theory (cont’d) & Attitudes. I. Attribution Theory. What is It? 1. Naïve scientist http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImCQNq8rtWc&feature=related B. Dispositional vs. Situational Attributions
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Thursday February 26, 2009
Attribution Theory (cont’d)
1. Naïve scientist
B. Dispositional vs. Situational Attributions
1. Subtractive Rule
C. Covariation Principle (Kelley)
1. Three sources of behavior
2. Sources of information for making attribution
Is Joe the Comedian funny? Is Mary easily amused? Or is tonight a special event?
1. Correspondence bias (Jones 1979)
2. Actor-observer effect (“You fell, I was pushed”)
3. Self-serving bias (“I’m good, you’re lucky”)
a. Locus of control
a. Internal/stable = Ability (your ability at logic & reasoning)
b. Internal/unstable = Effort (how many hours you studied the LSAT guide)
c. External/stable = Task difficulty (how difficult the test is)
d. External/unstable = Luck
Source: Weiner et al., 1972
a. Optimistic attribution style. Negative outcomes attributed external, unstable and specific causes; and positive outcomes to internal, stable, global causes.
b. Pessimistic attribution style. Negative outcomes attributed to internal, stable, and global forces. (I’m a bad person); positive events in terms of external, unstable, and specific causes.
1. General: “an attitude is a predisposition to respond to a particular object in a generally favorable or unfavorable way.”
2. Tripartite approaches to attitude
a. Affective: + or - evaluation (like/dislike) of object
b. Behavioral: predisposition to respond or a behavioral tendency towards the object.
c. Cognitive: beliefs about object
1. Instrumental conditioning
a. Bennington College study (Newcomb 1943)
2. Classical conditioning
3. Observational learning
1. Direct or self-reported measures
a. Single items
b. Likert scale
c. Semantic differential (Osgood, Suci, Tannenbaum 1975)
2. Indirect methods
a.Wrong number technique
b. Lost letter technique
Good +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 Bad
Clean +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 Dirty
Structure of Attitudes 1943)
Vertical Structure ↓
I follow God’s
leads to promiscuity.
ruin girls’ lives.
The Bible says
sex is wrong.
Premarital sex is
Are Baby Boomers 1943)really more politically liberal the Gen Xers (or Gen Y)?
Anti-war protest, 1968