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MATERIAL BALANCE METHODOLOGY Julia Brown Manager, Process Development. Introduction:.

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introduction

Introduction:

In an enterprise, the waste and emission problems, appear from the production points where the materials are used, processed and treated. To give a solution to your environmental problems, the sources has to be identified, as well as the volume and the causes of the waste and emissions......

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Introduction

..... The substances with which you are working with, have to be known, to estimate its real value in the process and to estimate possible developments during the evaluation.

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Definition

“Materials Balance analysis (MB) is a systematic reconstruction of the way in which a chemical element, a compound or material passes through a natural cycle and/or its economical benefits. An analysis of the material flow, usually is based on the origin of a physical balance.”

German investigation Committe, 1993

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Describes or illustrates any material flow present in the enterprise.

Trace the waste at the point at which it is generated.

Print data so that decisions may be taken.

Identify the production process weaknesses.

Give a detailed reasonable and quantified priorization of the results to obtain wastes and emissions minimization.

Objectives of BM

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Identify the materials used by the enterprise.

Identify the sources, the volumes and causes of the wastes and emissions.

Create a base for the evaluation and prediction of future developments.

Define strategies to improve the general situation of the enterprise.

Results

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Analysis points have to be defined and the parameters that are to be evaluated.

The overview or overall effect of the balance has to be defined.

The time period considered by the balance has to be defined.

The process consequences are defined.

The flow diagram is designed.

The MB´s are to be generated.

Results should be interpreted.

How a MB is done?

1 analysis points and technical advice
The process areas that will be studied has to be determined .

Analysis as a function of: costs, risks, secure deposit of wastes, volume etc.

1. Analysis Points and Technical Advice
1 points of analysis and technical advice
First step is to develop an analysis of input and output of the enterprise.

Detailed analysis in relation to the more extensive flows and ecological problems.

Definition of each flow’s importance

1. Points of Analysis and Technical Advice
1 1 conditions of technical advice
1.1 Conditions of Technical Advice

Actual

Advice

strategy

Reactive

  • Internal rules
  • Knowledge of the source
  • Segregation
  • Reliable points
  • Variation with the time
2 mb overview
The productive process is divided into sequencial steps according to the priority of the analysis and the study of the flows previously done.2. MB Overview
4 definition of process sequence
Detailed study of the material flow.

Processes are divided according to a representative structure.

What are considered processes? activities, equipments, products or utility aspects.

4. Definition of process sequence
5 flow diagram
Graphic interpretation of the materials flows. It shows volumes, proportions, ecological relevance among other characteristics.

Indicate the sequence or steps of the productive process.

5. Flow diagram
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Flow Diagram Example

Output

Input

Returned bottles

Detergent Residues Caustic soda Residues

Org. & inorg. matter

First soak by spray

Water

Water

Caustic soda

Detergent

Vapor

Labels+ Caustic soda sol.

Residual bath

Muds

Condensates

Caustic soda bath

Water

Caustic soda

Detergent

Vapor

Residual bath

Muds

Condensates

Caustic soda bath

WaterVapor

Soak by inmersion

Condensates

Final soak by inmersion

Water

Vapor

Condensates

Washed bottles

6 material balance
Conservation mass principle is used because it indicates that:

Input Material = Output Material

Units of measurements given in kg or m3

6. Material Balance
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Example 1: Input and Output diagram

Auxiliary materials

Water

Energy

Product

(expected)

Unit

Operation

Raw material

byproduct

(usable)

Waste

Waste easily assimilated by the environment

Inert waste always available

toxic/dangerous

waste

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Example 2: Input and Output

Raw materials

Gaseous emissions

Plant, Process or Unit Operación

Catalyst

Products

Air/Water

By-products

Energy

Wastewater

Recycle

Liquid waste

Solid waste

Reusable residues in other operation

7 interpretation
Establish standards that will establish a relationship between the material consume and the waste generated.

Establish the process efficiency indicators. (for example Kwh/coffee produced)

7. Interpretation