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UNFCCC Inter-sessional Meeting – Bangkok 2009 Asia Indigenous Peoples’ Workshops on Climate Change – 02/09/09 Livelihood Security and Rights Shifting Cultivation, REDD and Climate Change Amba Jamir TML-India Livelihood… sources From cropping phase From the fallow phase

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livelihood security and rights

UNFCCC Inter-sessional Meeting – Bangkok 2009

Asia Indigenous Peoples’ Workshops on Climate Change – 02/09/09

Livelihood Security and Rights

Shifting Cultivation, REDD and Climate Change

Amba Jamir

TML-India

livelihood sources
Livelihood… sources
  • From cropping phase
  • From the fallow phase
  • Forests and community lands
  • … and beyond
shifting cultivation
Shifting cultivation
  • Key production system - in both agriculture and forestry systems - for providing livelihood to many indigenous and tribal groups in the tropical and sub tropical highlands.
livelihood assets
Livelihood assets

Human Capital

Natural capital

Social Capital

Shifting cultivator

Physical Capital

Financial Capital

human capital
Human Capital
  • Knowledge systems
  • Skills
  • Capacity to work
  • Capacity to adapt
  • back
natural capital
Natural Capital
  • Land and produce
  • Rivers and springs
  • Wild foods & fibres - fallow
  • Agrobiodiversity
  • Trees and forest products
  • Environmental services
  • back
social capital
Social capital
  • Kinship and patronage
  • Community responsibility and representation
  • Common access and benefit sharing mechanisms
  • Social safety nets
  • Trust, mutual support and values
  • Beyond … back
physical capital
Physical capital
  • Tools and techology
    • Tools and equipment for production
    • Traditional technology
      • Seed collection & storage
      • Plant breeding
      • Pest management
      • Soil, water and nutrition management
    • Infrastructure back
financial capital
Financial capital
  • The weakest link…
  • Resource rich but cash poor
  • Credit mechanisms
  • Savings and pensions
  • Wages and remittances… back
in a nutshell
In a nutshell…

Strong on…

  • Internal mechanisms
  • Management systems (resources)
  • Institutional arrangements (governance)
  • Rural economy – across seasons

Weak on…

  • Finance
  • External factors…
  • Tenure issues
  • Policy
challenges
Challenges
  • Changes in/lack of tenurial rights
    • Fragmentation/loss of land holding
    • Privatization & alienation of land
    • Land holding transformation
  • Increased vulnerability
    • External factors and forces
    • Exotic land use systems
  • Market Influence
  • Poor policy environment
institution tenure and policy
Institution, tenure and policy…
  • Institutional arrangements
    • Inherent rights and access and benefit regimes
    • Ability to cope and adapt
    • Custodian and defender of values and beliefs
  • Tenure (ownership & management)
  • Land-use changes
  • Policy environments and initiatives
opportunities
Opportunities
  • Jhum modifications with cash crops
    • both during cropping and fallow phase
    • Cash crops / Low volume high value
  • Crop improvement through available gene pool
  • Growing market for organic and niche products
  • Potential for carbon sequestration and benefits
  • Payment for ecosystem services
  • Organic market
  • Diversification and integration of other farming systems
    • Livestock
    • Increase jhum cycle
    • Improved jhum cycle
  • Vast scope for research and development
slide16

Land Use Planning

Tourism

Policy initiatives

Coping & Adaptation Mechanisms

Value addition

Niche markets

Forestry

Domestication

slide17

Thank you

Photo: Amba Jamir