Livelihood Security and Rights - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Livelihood Security and Rights

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  1. UNFCCC Inter-sessional Meeting – Bangkok 2009 Asia Indigenous Peoples’ Workshops on Climate Change – 02/09/09 Livelihood Security and Rights Shifting Cultivation, REDD and Climate Change Amba Jamir TML-India

  2. Livelihood… sources • From cropping phase • From the fallow phase • Forests and community lands • … and beyond

  3. Shifting cultivation • Key production system - in both agriculture and forestry systems - for providing livelihood to many indigenous and tribal groups in the tropical and sub tropical highlands.

  4. Livelihood assets Human Capital Natural capital Social Capital Shifting cultivator Physical Capital Financial Capital

  5. Human Capital • Knowledge systems • Skills • Capacity to work • Capacity to adapt • back

  6. Natural Capital • Land and produce • Rivers and springs • Wild foods & fibres - fallow • Agrobiodiversity • Trees and forest products • Environmental services • back

  7. Social capital • Kinship and patronage • Community responsibility and representation • Common access and benefit sharing mechanisms • Social safety nets • Trust, mutual support and values • Beyond … back

  8. Physical capital • Tools and techology • Tools and equipment for production • Traditional technology • Seed collection & storage • Plant breeding • Pest management • Soil, water and nutrition management • Infrastructure back

  9. Financial capital • The weakest link… • Resource rich but cash poor • Credit mechanisms • Savings and pensions • Wages and remittances… back

  10. Livelihood Security?

  11. In a nutshell… Strong on… • Internal mechanisms • Management systems (resources) • Institutional arrangements (governance) • Rural economy – across seasons Weak on… • Finance • External factors… • Tenure issues • Policy

  12. Challenges • Changes in/lack of tenurial rights • Fragmentation/loss of land holding • Privatization & alienation of land • Land holding transformation • Increased vulnerability • External factors and forces • Exotic land use systems • Market Influence • Poor policy environment

  13. Institution, tenure and policy… • Institutional arrangements • Inherent rights and access and benefit regimes • Ability to cope and adapt • Custodian and defender of values and beliefs • Tenure (ownership & management) • Land-use changes • Policy environments and initiatives

  14. Opportunities • Jhum modifications with cash crops • both during cropping and fallow phase • Cash crops / Low volume high value • Crop improvement through available gene pool • Growing market for organic and niche products • Potential for carbon sequestration and benefits • Payment for ecosystem services • Organic market • Diversification and integration of other farming systems • Livestock • Increase jhum cycle • Improved jhum cycle • Vast scope for research and development

  15. Land Use Planning Tourism Policy initiatives Coping & Adaptation Mechanisms Value addition Niche markets Forestry Domestication

  16. Thank you Photo: Amba Jamir