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  1. Adversarial Search and Game Playing Russell and Norvig: Chapter 6 CMSC 421 – Fall 2006

  2. Topics • Game playing • Game trees • Minimax • Alpha-beta pruning • Examples

  3. What & Why • Games are a form of multi-agent environment • What do other agents do and how do they affect our success? • Cooperative vs. competitive • Competitive multi-agent environments give rise to adversarial search a.k.a. games • Why study games? • Fun; historically entertaining • Interesting subject of study because they are hard • Easy to represent and agents restricted to small number of actions

  4. Environment sensors environment ? agent actuators Game-Playing Agent

  5. Relation of Games to Search • Search – no adversary • Solution is (heuristic) method for finding goal • Heuristics and CSP techniques can find optimal solution • Evaluation function: estimate of cost from start to goal through given node • Examples: path planning, scheduling activities • Games – adversary • Solution is strategy (strategy specifies move for every possible opponent reply). • Time limits force an approximate solution • Evaluation function: evaluate “goodness” of game position • Examples: chess, checkers, Othello, backgammon

  6. Types of games deterministic chance perfect information imperfect information

  7. Types of games deterministic chance perfect information imperfect information

  8. Typical case • 2-person game • Players alternate moves • Zero-sum: one player’s loss is the other’s gain • Perfect information: both players have access to complete information about the state of the game. No information is hidden from either player. • No chance (e.g., using dice) involved • Examples: Tic-Tac-Toe, Checkers, Chess, Go, Nim, Othello • Not: Bridge, Solitaire, Backgammon, ...

  9. Nim • Game: start with a punch of piles of tokens • At each turn, a player choose one of the piles, and may pick up one or two tokens from the pile • The player who picks up the last token LOSES

  10. NIM(2,2) • Try the following case: pile 1 pile 2

  11. Game Search Formulation • Two players MAX and MIN take turns (with MAX playing first) • State space • Initial state • Successor function • Terminal test • Utility function, that tells whether a terminal state is a win (for MAX), a loss, or a draw • MAX uses search tree to determine next move.

  12. Partial Game Tree for Tic-Tac-Toe

  13. Game Tree for NIM(2,2)

  14. Optimal strategies • Find the contingent strategy for MAX assuming an infallible MIN opponent. • Assumption: Both players play optimally !! • Given a game tree, the optimal strategy can be determined by using the minimax value of each node: MINIMAX-VALUE(n)= UTILITY(n) If n is a terminal maxs  successors(n) MINIMAX-VALUE(s) If n is a max node mins  successors(n) MINIMAX-VALUE(s) If n is a min node

  15. 2 2 1 2 7 1 2 7 1 8 8 2 2 1 2 7 1 8 2 7 1 8 Optimal Play 2 7 1 8 This is the optimal play MAX MIN

  16. Minimax Tree MAX node MIN node value computed by minimax f value

  17. Two-Ply Game Tree

  18. Two-Ply Game Tree

  19. Two-Ply Game Tree

  20. Two-Ply Game Tree The minimax decision Minimax maximizes the worst-case outcome for max.

  21. Min-Max Game Tree for NIM(2,2)

  22. What if MIN does not play optimally? • Definition of optimal play for MAX assumes MIN plays optimally: maximizes worst-case outcome for MAX. • But if MIN does not play optimally, MAX can do even better.

  23. Minimax Algorithm function MINIMAX-DECISION(state) returns an action inputs: state, current state in game vMAX-VALUE(state) return the action in SUCCESSORS(state) with value v function MAX-VALUE(state) returns a utility value if TERMINAL-TEST(state) then return UTILITY(state) v  ∞ for a,s in SUCCESSORS(state) do v MAX(v,MIN-VALUE(s)) return v function MIN-VALUE(state) returns a utility value if TERMINAL-TEST(state) then return UTILITY(state) v  ∞ for a,s in SUCCESSORS(state) do v MIN(v,MAX-VALUE(s)) return v

  24. Properties of Minimax

  25. in theory… Properties of Minimax yes,  yes,  O(bm),  O(bm), 

  26. Problem of minimax search • Number of games states is exponential to the number of moves. • Solution: Do not examine every node • ==> Alpha-beta pruning • Remove branches that do not influence final decision

  27. Alpha-beta pruning • We can improve on the performance of the minimax algorithm through alpha-beta pruning • Basic idea: “If you have an idea that is surely bad, don't take the time to see how truly awful it is.” -- Pat Winston MAX >=2 • We don’t need to compute the value at this node. • No matter what it is, it can’t affect the value of the root node. MIN =2 <=1 MAX 2 7 1 ?

  28. Alpha-Beta Example Do DF-search until first leaf Range of possible values [-∞,+∞] [-∞, +∞]

  29. Alpha-Beta Example (continued) [-∞,+∞] [-∞,3]

  30. Alpha-Beta Example (continued) [-∞,+∞] [-∞,3]

  31. Alpha-Beta Example (continued) [3,+∞] [3,3]

  32. Alpha-Beta Example (continued) [3,+∞] This node is worse for MAX [3,3] [-∞,2]

  33. Alpha-Beta Example (continued) , [3,14] [3,3] [-∞,2] [-∞,14]

  34. Alpha-Beta Example (continued) , [3,5] [3,3] [−∞,2] [-∞,5]

  35. Alpha-Beta Example (continued) [3,3] [2,2] [3,3] [−∞,2]

  36. Alpha-Beta Example (continued) [3,3] [2,2] [3,3] [-∞,2]

  37. Alpha-Beta Algorithm function ALPHA-BETA-SEARCH(state) returns an action inputs: state, current state in game vMAX-VALUE(state, - ∞ , +∞) return the action in SUCCESSORS(state) with value v function MAX-VALUE(state, , ) returns a utility value if TERMINAL-TEST(state) then return UTILITY(state) v  - ∞ for a,s in SUCCESSORS(state) do v MAX(v,MIN-VALUE(s,  , )) ifv ≥ then returnv  MAX( ,v) return v

  38. Alpha-Beta Algorithm function MIN-VALUE(state,  , ) returns a utility value if TERMINAL-TEST(state) then return UTILITY(state) v  + ∞ for a,s in SUCCESSORS(state) do v MIN(v,MAX-VALUE(s,  , )) ifv ≤ then returnv  MIN( ,v) return v

  39. General alpha-beta pruning • Consider a node n somewhere in the tree • If player has a better choice at • Parent node of n • Or any choice point further up • n will never be reached in actual play. • Hence when enough is known about n, it can be pruned.

  40. Alpha-Beta Example 0 5 -3 3 3 -3 0 2 -2 3 5 2 5 -5 0 1 5 1 -3 0 -5 5 -3 3 2

  41. Alpha-Beta Example 1. 2. 3. 10. 4. 11. 5. 8. 12. 6. 7. 9. 13. 0 5 -3 3 3 -3 0 2 -2 3 5 2 5 -5 0 1 5 1 -3 0 -5 5 -3 3 2

  42. Comments: Alpha-Beta Pruning • Pruning does not affect final results • Entire subtrees can be pruned. • Good move ordering improves effectiveness of pruning • With “perfect ordering,” time complexity is O(bm/2) • Branching factor of sqrt(b) !! • Alpha-beta pruning can look twice as far as minimax in the same amount of time • Repeated states are again possible. • Store them in memory = transposition table

  43. Imperfect Real-time Decisions • In general the search tree is too big to make it possible to reach the terminal states! • Examples: • Checkers: ~1040 nodes • Chess: ~10120 nodes • SHANNON (1950): • Cut off search earlier (replace TERMINAL-TEST by CUTOFF-TEST) • Apply heuristic evaluation function EVAL (replacing utility function of alpha-beta)

  44. Cutting off search • Change: • if TERMINAL-TEST(state) then return UTILITY(state) into • if CUTOFF-TEST(state,depth) then return EVAL(state) • Introduces a fixed-depth limit depth • Is selected so that the amount of time will not exceed what the rules of the game allow. • When cuttoff occurs, the evaluation is performed.

  45. Evaluation function • Evaluation function or static evaluator is used to evaluate the “goodness” of a game position. • Contrast with heuristic search where the evaluation function was a non-negative estimate of the cost from the start node to a goal and passing through the given node • The zero-sum assumption allows us to use a single evaluation function to describe the goodness of a board with respect to both players. • f(n) >> 0: position n good for me and bad for you • f(n) << 0: position n bad for me and good for you • f(n) near 0: position n is a neutral position • f(n) = +infinity: win for me • f(n) = -infinity: win for you

  46. Evaluation function examples • Example of an evaluation function for Tic-Tac-Toe: f(n) = [# of 3-lengths open for me] - [# of 3-lengths open for you] where a 3-length is a complete row, column, or diagonal • Alan Turing’s function for chess • f(n) = w(n)/b(n) where w(n) = sum of the point value of white’s pieces and b(n) = sum of black’s • Most evaluation functions are specified as a weighted sum of position features: f(n) = w1*feat1(n) + w2*feat2(n) + ... + wn*featk(n) • Example features for chess are piece count, piece placement, squares controlled, etc. • Deep Blue has about 6000 features in its evaluation function

  47. Issues • Choice of the horizon • Size of memory needed • Number of nodes examined

  48. Adaptive Search • Wait for quiescence - hot spots • Horizon effect • Extend singular nodes /Secondary search • Note that the horizon may not then be the same on every path of the tree

  49. Games that include chance • White has rolled (6,5) • Possible moves (5-10,5-11), (5-11,19-24),(5-10,10-16) and (5-11,11-16)

  50. Games that include chance chance nodes • Possible moves (5-10,5-11), (5-11,19-24),(5-10,10-16) and (5-11,11-16) • [1,1], [6,6] chance …, all other chance …